A Dancer’s Regime: Life After Performance Career. Eye on Dance 231. Videotape. Dir. Richard Sheridan. Arc Videodance, 1987. 28 min.
Dancers John Parks, Daniel Duell, and Rose Marie Wright talk about the challenges and difficulties of making the transition from performing to second careers. Each recalls his/her own experiences as a dancer. A dancer’s regime: Life after performance: Member of Twyla Tharp and Dancers, Parks with Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, and Duell with the New York City Ballet. Ipiotis contributes statistics about dancers’ careers and second careers, and discusses existing sources of support. The many dance excerpts depict Wright in The Bix Pieces, The Fugue, All About Eggs, and other choreography by Tharp; Parks is seen in Ailey’s Revelations; and Duell is represented by his ballet De Falla Divertissements, danced by the Ballet Hispanico.
Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane and Lucinda Ebersole, eds. Women, Creativity, and the Arts: Critical Autobiographical Perspectives. New York: Continuum, 1995.
On the Creative Necessity of Sacrifice, Diane Apostolos-Cappadona.
I. On Women and Creativity: The Reality of Woman, Iris Bunsch. Creativity with a Place to Go, Jean Baker Miller. Amongst the Ghosts/Christine Battersby. Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? Linda Nochlin. The Female Experience and Artistic Creativity, Joelynn Snyder-Ott. An Aesthetic of Blackness: Strange and Oppositional, Bell Hooks. The Point of View: Universal or Particular? Monique Wittig. The Artist as Woman, Patricia Meyer Spacks. Variations on Negation and the Heresy of Black Feminist Creativity, Michele Wallace
II. On Women in the Arts: Reflecting on Why I Am an Artist, Georgia O’Keeffe. I Am A Dancer, Martha Graham. Rightness of My Being, Louise Nevelson. Women Reconstructing the World, Anais Nin. Chapter Eleven from The Life of Poetry, Muriel Rukeyser. The Fisherwoman’s Daughter, Ursula K. Le Guin. Books and Babies, Alice McDermott. Interviews with Annie Leibovitz, Melissa Harris. The Transformation of Silence into Language and Action, Audre Lorde
A psychotherapist whose practice is devoted to artists discusses her work with an artist who had moved from painting beautiful, lively, layered canvases to creating works full of negative imagery.
The writer discusses the creative block, its manifestations, and ways of overcoming it. She suggests that there is no formula for overcoming blocks; they need to be worked out in ways that are particular to the artist’s own circumstance.
The writer discusses how artists cope with criticism. Taking the case of a specific artist, she explains that in order to receive valuable feedback, the best work is done by heeding the inner self untempered by the desire to please or communicate with the world. She wonders whether it is this opening of the inner self that creates an unusual degree of vulnerability in artists, whether this is why artists construct elaborate mechanisms to protect themselves, and whether these very mechanisms, or even the lack of them, sometimes block creativity.
Advice for craftspeople on resolving dilemmas of isolation. Isolation plagues artists, many of whom want to be both isolated and not isolated from the world. By discovering their optimum climactic settings as business people and creators, artists can maintain and ensure the life and lifestyle they deeply cherish. Topics addressed include lifestyle variables that influence the sense of isolation, solutions and ideas on how to create a satisfactory personal equation, and experimenting with various work patterns and living situations.
Batschmann, Oskar, Uniform Title: Ausstellungskunstler. English Title: The Artist in the Modern World: The Conflict Between Market and Self-Expression. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1997.
I. The Exhibition as a Medium for the Presentation of Art. Institutionalizing Exhibitions. Satisfying Public Taste. Public Patronage. Exhibition Pieces. The Business of Exhibitions. French Exhibition Pieces in England. The Problems of Critics and Artists.
II. Freedom and the Social Function of the Artist. The Open Exhibition, the Artist Liberated. Freedom and Legitimation. Social Legitimation, the Advantages of the Avantgarde. Nostalgic Visions of the Artist.
III. The Cult of the Artist. Retrospectives and Personal Museums, West and Canova. The Cult of the Dead Genius, Thorvaldsen’s Museum. The Studio as the Center of a Cult. The Cult of the Tragic Artist: Death and Suicide in the Studio. The Studio and the Sketch. Apotheoses. Self-Portraits.
IV. Strategies and Careers. Arranging a Scandal. Aggressions and Attack. Group Strategies. Social Exiles and Prophets. L’Union des Femmes Peintres et Sculpteurs. A Messianic Artists Colony.
V. Rebellions and the Power of Art. Hostility Between Artists and the Public. Back to the Power of the Picture. Social and Mystical Legitimations. The Exhibition as a Work of Art. Civilized Rebels, The Irascibles. The Power of the Image, the Sublime.
VI. Art for Exhibition. Policy and Politics. The Performance of the Clowns. Everyman Shaman. The Exhibition Maker as Star. In-Art and Out-Art. Art Capital. Designing Experience: Installations.
Income problems of artists.
This collection of essays by cultural critic plumbs particular areas of controversy to understand what information these “zones of contention” might yield about the multifarious culture wars taking place within American society today.
In the process she addresses the place of art and artists in society, the difficulties facing women in the workplace, why male bonding exists, why women experience anxiety in
relationship to creative endeavors, and why artists are misunderstood within American society. She positions art and artists, as well as institutional dynamics within a philosophical framework.
Foreword, Henry A. Giroux
1. Art Thrust Into the Public Sphere
2. When Cultures Come Into Contention
3. Social Responsibility and the Place of the Artist in Society
4. Herbert Marcuse and the Subversive Potential of Art
5. The Education of Young Artists and the Issue of Audience
6. Private Fantasies Shape Public Events and Public Events Invade and Shape Our Dreams
7. Re-imagining Art Schools
8. Imaginative Geography
9. Goat Island’s We Got a Date
10. From Tantrums to Prayer
11. Drawing from the Subtle Body
12. Lineaments of Desire
13. The Prodigal Daughter
14. Women, Anxiety, Creativity
15. Male Anxiety and the Fear of Female Authority
16. Men in Suits
17. The Institution as Dysfunctional Family
Bejjani, Fadi J. Current Research in Arts Medicine. New Jersey: Cappella Books, 1993.
Aesthetics/Arts and medicine—Art therapy—Biomechanics/Ergonomics—Dance medicine – Dance therapy—Music education—Music medicine – Music therapy—Neurosciences—Performance stress—Visual arts medicine—Vocal arts medicine.
This CD-ROM accompanies the exhibition “Good Business is the Best Art : Twenty Years of the Artist in the Marketplace Program” held Apr. 6-Sept. 10, 2000 at the Bronx Museum of the Arts.
This book tells the story of artists in American society during a period of critical transition from Victorian to modern values, examining how culture shaped the artists and
how artists shaped their culture. Focusing on such important painters as James McNeill Whistler, William Merritt Chase, Cecilia Beaux, Winslow Homer, and Albert Pinkham Ryder, the author investigates how artists reacted to the growing power of the media, to an expanding consumer society, to the need for a specifically American artist
type, and to the problem of gender.
Introduction: Templates for Modernity
Pt. I. The Traffic in Images
1. Finding the “Real” American Artist
2. The Artist in the Age of Surfaces: The Culture of Display and the Taint of Trade
Pt. II. Sickness and Health
3. Fighting Infection: Aestheticism, Degeneration, and the Regulation of Artistic Masculinity
4. Painting as Rest Cure
Pt. III. Gender on the Market
5. Outselling the Feminine
6. Being Big: Winslow Homer and the American Business Spirit
Pt. IV. The Artist in the Realm of Spectacle
7. Performing the Self
8. Performing Bohemia
Pt. V. Oculus Populi
9. Dabble, Daub, and Dauber: Cartoons and Artistic Identity
10. Populist Versus Plutocratic Aesthetics
Canaday, John. The Artist as Social Critic/The Artist as a Visionary. Slide. Metropolitan Seminars in Art 5. Center for Humanities, 1972.
Deals with the role of the artist in society, showing how he has expressed ideas on relationships between people, protested against vice and injustice, and commented on man’s folly or his achievements. Considers the artist as poet, and explains that he may base his visionary paintings on the world around him or fabricate new worlds.
Centeno, Augusto, ed. The Intent of the Artist. New York: Russell & Russell, 1970.
Man and His Imagination, by S. Anderson.
Some Thoughts on Playwrighting, by T. Wilder.
The Composer and His Message, by R. Sessions.
These Documents Called Buildings, by W. Lescaze.
Changing Images of Men and Women Dancing: ABT and NFL. Eye on Dance 68. Videotape. Dir. Richard Sheridan. Arc Videodance, 1982. 28 min.
NFL football player George Martin, American Ballet Theatre dancers Christine Spizzo and Frank Smith, and labor lawyer Leonard Liebowitz discuss some of the problems shared by dancers and athletes during strikes and lockouts, including loss of physical conditioning, increased risk of injury upon resumption of activity, loss of income, and the dangers of activism. They comment upon dancers’ low financial standing and reluctance to demand due compensation in the past, and the need for change. In Esoterica Balletica, David Anderson tells anecdotes related by Walter Terry about Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn.
Contemporary Artists at Work. Dir. Nahum Zilberberg. Videocassette. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Films, 1975.
Twelve artists talk about what they are doing and how they feel about their work. Each artist discusses style, methods, and materials.
Dancers’ Bodies: Physical and Emotional Change. Eye on Dance 120. Videotape. Dir. Jeffrey C. Bush. Arc Videodance, 1984.
Dancers Martine Van Hamel, a principal with American Ballet Theatre, and Hector Mercado, who now performs on Broadway, review some of the challenges and problems they have faced as performers over the years. Among these are overcoming physical efficiencies, competition, insecurity, typecasting, working for different choreographers, and aging. Van Hamel compares performing with the National Ballet of Canada and American Ballet Theatre; Mercado discusses dancing in the musical comedy Cats. In Esoterica Balletica, costume designer Willa Kim tells how she created costumes for three ballets by Eliot Feld: Danzon Cubano, Summer’s Lease, and Three Dances.
Dancers’ Health Alert: Maturing Patterns. Eye on Dance 154. Videotape. Jeffrey C. Bush, Susan Buirge, and Margalit Oved. Arc Videodance, 1985.
Dancer/choreographer, Ze’eva Cohen and Dr. Joshua Simon, an internist, discuss some of the physiological and psychological changes that a dancer may experience with age, identifying both detrimental and advantageous aspects of the maturing process. Cohen is seen performing in excerpts from an unidentified solo choreographed by Susan Buirge and the solo Rebekah by Margalit Oved. In Esoterica Balletica, Ipiotis interviews Douglas Wright, a gymnast turned dancer. He contrasts gymnastic and dance training, and discusses the movement in two works by Paul Taylor, Snow White and Dust.
Dancers’ Survival Tactics: Growth and Varying Patterns. Eye on Dance 138. Videotape. Jeffrey C. Bush. 1984.
Dancers Hilda Morales, Tim Wengerd, and Tere O’Connor discuss various aspects of a dance career: the sacrifices involved, the differences between the dancer’s economic and social status in the U.S. and abroad, the experience of performing and touring with a company, the different career spans of ballet and modern dancers, and other topics. Wengerd recalls working with Martha Graham as a member of her company; Morales discusses Baryshnikov’s directorship at American Ballet Theatre. Each guest is seen performing in a recorded excerpt: Morales in “Something Between Me”, O’Connor in his own choreography for “Construct-A-Guy”, and Wengerd in his “Journey to the Mouth of the River.” In “Esoterica Balletica”, Thea Nerissa Barnes talks about three qualities that a dancer needs in today’s world.
Farnell, Brenda, ed. Human Action Signs in Cultural Context: The Visible and the Invisible in Movement and Dance. New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1995.
Foreword, Drid Williams. Ch. 1. Visible and Invisible in Hawaiian Dance, Adrienne L. Kaeppler. Ch. 2. Space, Intersubjectivity and the Conceptual Imperative: Three Ethnographic Cases, Drid Williams. Ch. 3. Where Mind Is a Verb: Spatial Orientation and Deixis in Plains Indian Sign Talk and Assiniboine (Nakota) Culture, Brenda Farnell. Ch. 4. Sociality, Social Interaction, and Sign Language in Aboriginal Australia, Adam Kendon. Ch. 5. Where Words Harm and Blows Heal, Gaynor M. Macdonald. Ch. 6. Social Commentary in African-American Movement Performance, LeeEllen Friedland. Ch. 7. Thinking with Movement: Improvising Versus Composing? Rajika Puri and Diana Hart-Johnson. Ch. 8. The Indexical Structure of Visibility, Bonnie Urciuoli. Ch. 9. Cartesianism Revisited: The Ghost in the Moving Machine or the Lived Body, Charles Varela.
Fraleigh, Sondra Horton and Penelope Hanstein, eds. Researching Dance: Evolving Modes of Inquiry. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999.
Pt. I. Context, Process, and Theory. Ch. 1. Family Resemblance, Sondra Horton Fraleigh. Ch. 2. From Idea to Research Proposal: Balancing the Systematic and Serendipitous, Penelope Hanstein. Ch. 3. Models and Metaphors: Theory Making and the Creation of New Knowledge, Penelope Hanstein
Pt. II. Modes of Inquiry and Dance Research Methods. Ch. 4. Postpositivist Research in Dance, Jill Green and Susan W. Stinson. Ch. 5. Scientific Exploration in Dance, Steven J. Chatfield. Ch. 6. Dance in the Hermeneutic Circle, Joann McNamara. Ch. 7. Witnessing the Frog Pond, Sondra Horton Fraleigh. Ch. 8. The Sense of the Past: Historiography and Dance, Shelley C. Berg. Ch. 9. Dance Ethnography: Tracing the Weave of Dance in the Fabric of Culture, Joan D. Frosch
Franklin, Margery B. “Forging Links in Narratives of Creative Work: Causes, Precursors, and Sources.” The Journal of Aesthetic Education 33.1 (1999).
Part of a special section on the relationship between childhood experience and creative work in adult life. The writer discusses the forms of relating past to the present used in autobiographies. Autobiographical narratives of creative work are linked by three forms of relating past to present: a diffuse notion of cause-effect relations is used as an umbrella concept to link earlier to later events by identifying causal antecedents of later
happenings; early forms are construed as precursors of later work; and sources for current work are located in earlier experiences and events. Unlike psychological theory, which most typically tends to identify causes, many first-person accounts of artists contain all three forms to account for the different occurrences that comprise the life/work narrative, and each form has a certain kind of explanatory force.
I. Concepts of Development in the Domain of the Arts
1. Is the Concept of Development Applicable to Art? Bernard Kaplan
2. Is Feminist Art Aesthetically Regressive? Hilde S. Hein
3. Psychoanalysis, Romanticism and the Nature of Aesthetic Consciousness with Reflections on Modernism and Post Modernism, Louis A. Sass
II. Artistic Processes in Ontogenesis
4. Development as the Growth of Repertoires, Dennis Palmer Wolf
5. Development in Architectural Designing, Gabriela Goldschmidt
III. Development of the Artist
6. Interconnective Evolvements from One Medium to Another, Leonard Baskin
7. Michelangelo, Early Childhood, and Maternal Imagery: The Sculptor’s Relation to Stone, Robert S. Liebert
8. What Aesthetic Development Is Not: An Inquiry into Pathologies of Postmodern Creation, Mark Freeman
9. Narratives of Change and Continuity: Women Artists Reflect on Their Work, Margery B. Franklin
IV. On Development in the History of Art
10. Concurrent Conceptual Revolutions in Art and Science, Sidney J. Blatt
11. Is a Developmental History of Art Possible? Marx W. Wartofsky
12. Response to Wartofsky, Sidney J. Blatt
Freeman, Mark Philip. Finding the Muse: A Sociopsychological Inquiry into the Conditions of Artistic Creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Finding the Muse explores the lives of a group of aspiring artists from the mid-1960s, when they completed art school, to the mid-1980s, focusing especially on problems of artistic creativity as they relate to such issues as the mystique of the artist, the challenge of establishing community among artists, the place of the art market in the construction of artistic identity, and the limits and possibilities of modern and postmodern art itself. The present exploration is a timely one; for despite the wealth of information suggesting that recent decades have brought an unparalleled measure of freedom for artists owing to the increasingly pluralistic climate within which they have lived and worked, it is suggested here that this climate has been decidedly less conducive to creativity than is often assumed. By identifying salient problems of contemporary artistic creativity, Mark Freeman seeks both to reconstruct more optimal conditions of creativity and to provide direction for how these conditions might be achieved. In addition to having particular usefulness for psychologists of art and sociologists of American culture, Finding the Muse will be of interest to aspiring artists, philosophers, art historians, and art educators.
Summary: “At what stage of their careers do great artists produce their most important work? In a series of studies that bring new insights and new dimensions to the study of artistic creativity, Artistic Capital examines the careers of more than 100 modern painters, poets, and novelists to reveal a powerful relationship between age and artistic creativity.”–BOOK JACKET.
Chapter 1. Quantifying artistic success : ranking French painters – and paintings – from impressionism to cubism
Chapter 2. Measuring masters and masterpieces : French rankings of French painters and paintings from realism to surrealism
Chapter 3. Was Jackson Pollock the greatest modern American painter? : a quantitative investigation
Chapter 4. The New York School vs. the School of Paris : who really made the most important art after World War II?
Chapter 5. The market evaluation of fine art : the case of modern painting
Chapter 6. The life cycles of modern artists
Chapter 7. Masterpieces and markets : why the most famous modern paintings are not by American artists
Chapter 8. The reappearing masterpiece : ranking American artists and art works of the late twentieth century
Chapter 9. Literary life cycles : measuring the careers of modern American poets
Chapter 10. A portrait of the artist as a young or old innovator : measuring the careers of modern novelists
Chapter 11. A portrait of the artist as a very young or very old innovator : creativity at the extremes of the life cycle.
Goldman, Connie, et. al. Conversations with Creative People Over 70. Washington, DC: National Public Radio, 1980.
Points out how many artists over seventy years of age are still active and creative. Through interviews, film director and writer Joshua Logan and other well-known personalities speak candidly about their creative energies and the importance of the artistic experience.
Grant, Daniel. “How the Criticized Deal with Criticism.” American Artist June 1995: 66-8.
Some artists are successful with collectors but denounced by critics and art historians. In this category are Andrew Wyeth; his son James, also a painter; R. C. Gorman; LeRoy Neiman; and J. Seward Johnson, Jr. The artists themselves point to their validation by the public as an indication of their worth, but admit that they are at times stung by criticism. Artists must be aware that when their work is displayed, it becomes subject to the public’s scrutiny and prejudices. At the same time, criticism is only an interpretation of an artist’s work, not the absolute measure. An artist must finally let criticism become less important than the art itself. Neiman and Wyeth both say that when they put aside the negative reviews, they’re able to become absorbed in their work and paint for enjoyment.
Hermelin, Beate and Linda Pring. “The Pictorial Context Dependency of Savant Artists: A Research Note.” Perceptual and Motor Skills 87.3 (1998) 995-1001.
The relative immunity of the concept of size constancy in the face of changes to the retinal image as well as the pictorial device of linear perspective were investigated with nine savant artists and nine controls.
Introductory Notes / Jack Hirschman
Poetry and Militancy in Latin America / Roque Dalton
The Mayakovsky Case / Cesar Vallejo
Autopsy on Surrealism / Cesar Vallejo
How to Make Verse / Vladimir Mayakovsky
Art Is in Danger! / George Grosz, John Heartfield and Wieland Herzfelde
Theory & Practice of a Cinema with the People / Jorge Sanjines / The Ukamau Group
Scratching Surfaces – The Social Practice of Tendency Poetry / James Scully
Freedom of the Artist: People’s Artists Versus People’s Rulers / Ngugi wa Thiong’o
Democratization of Culture in Nicaragua / Ernesto Cardenal
Surviving America / Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz
Art of Liberation: A Vision of Freedom / Elizam Escobar
The American Popular Song – The Great American Songbook / Amiri Baraka
Notes on the New Female Voice / Margaret Randall
The Meaning of Exile for the Contemporary Latin American Writer / Arturo Arias
A Conversation with Etel Adnan / Csaba Polony
Poetry: Haiti, the Caribbean and the World / Paul Laraque
Reflections on Poetry and Revolution / Paul Laraque
Three Voices Together: A Collage / Susan Sherman, Kimiko Hahn and Gale Jackson
The Thriving of Tyranny in Darkness … Taking Back the Airwaves / Richard Edmondson
Mural, Mural on the Wall / Miranda Bergman
In Order to Affirm / Ferruccio Brugnaro
The Making of a Working-Class Intellectual / Carol Tarlen
Poetry and the Politics of Difference / Luis J. Rodriguez
Multiculturalism in the Year of Columbus and Rodney King: A Latino Poet’s Perspective / Martin Espada
Culture and Stuggle / Jack Hirschman.
Horosko, Marian. “Help is on the Way.” Dance Magazine Sept. 1982: 90.
Conference, entitled “Two Perspectives on Neuromuscular Performance: the Physical Therapist’s and the Dancer’s,” sponsored by the North Carolina School of the Arts and The North Carolina Physical Therapy Association. Conference on Career Transition for Dancers funded by NEA, Actor’s Equity, and the Labor Institute for Human Enrichment, Inc.
Jackson, Maria-Rosario. Arts and Culture Indicators in Community Building Project January 1996-May 1998. 1998.
This report focuses on two issues: (1) the usefulness of existing arts and culture data for the purposes of developing neighborhood indicators and (2) the ways in which art and culture are understood and valued at the neighbordhood level by those who live and work there. Included are a discussion of the reconnaissance efforts, field work, workshops, pilot and case studies conducted; a review of existing arts and culture data collection practices and their usefulness for developing neighborhood indicator; and an analytical framework for identifying indicator types.
Based on several years of field research in communities around the U.S., this brief presents a framework for better capturing and measuring arts, culture, and creative expression at the neighborhood level. Specifically, the brief discusses four domains essential to understanding community cultural conditions and dynamics: presence of opportunities for cultural engagement, cultural participation, impacts of participation, and systems of support for cultural expression.
Cultural participation is an important element of community life and an essential component of community building. But delineating the full role such participation plays in the community is dependent on capturing the range of ways in which people actually participate in creative expression. This brief presents our findings on a range of arts and cultural participation within the context of various community-building processes.
Jeffri, Joan. “Artists as Consumers: The Needs of Creative Artists are Marketing Opportunities.” American Demographics April 1988: 28-31, 61.
This article defies the myth of the starving artist as it reviews results from a survey about the work-related human and social service needs of New York artists.
Jeffri, Joan. “The Artist in an Integrated Society.” Public Money and the Muse. Stephen Benedict, ed. New York: Norton, 1991.
This chapter discusses the ways in which artists in the last decade have asserted their role in society – through public art, controversial exhibits, advocacy—and promotes the nurturing of artists as the social glue to hold society together.
Jeffri, Joan, ed. The Actor Speaks: Actors Discuss Their Experiences and Careers Westport: Greenwood, 1994.
This series of interviews with a dozen actors—from unknown to well-known, from stage to screen to television—is part of a series documenting the training and career development of professional artists. It includes interviews with Alan Alda, Mary Alice, Mercedes Ruehl, B.D. Wong, Jason Robards and others.
Jeffri, Joan, ed. The Craftsperson Speaks: Artists in Varied Media Discuss Their Crafts. Westport: Greenwood, 1992.
This series of interviews with a dozen craftspeople—from unknown to well-known, from different parts of the country, in varying media—is part of a series documenting the training and career development of professional artists. It includes interviews with Wayne Higby, Alfone Mattia, Joyce Scott, and Rudolf Staffel, among others.
Jeffri, Joan, ed. The Painter Speaks: Artists Discuss Their Experiences and Careers. Westport: Greenwood, 1993.
This series of interviews with a dozen painters—from emerging to mature, from all over the country—is part of a series documenting the training and career development of artists. It includes interviews with Chuck Close, Jim Dine, Sam Gilliam, and Emmi Whitehorse, among others.
Jeffri, Joan, et al, eds. The Artists Training and Career Project: Actors. New York: Research Center for Arts and Culture, Columbia University, 1990.
This report documents results from a survey of 6,000 amateur and professional actors across the United States regarding their training and career development from early to mature careers. Major topics include early education, marketplace judgments, public and peer recognition, family and financial support, grants and awards, income from art and career satisfaction.
Jeffri, Joan, et al, eds. The Artists Training and Career Project: Craftspeople. New York: Research Center for Arts and Culture, Columbia University, 1990.
This report documents results from a study of 4,000 craftspeople across the United States regarding their training and career development form early to mature careers. Major topics include early education, marketplace judgments, public and peer recognition, family and financial support, grants and awards, income from art and career satisfaction.
Jeffri, Joan, et al, eds. The Artists Training and Career Project: Painters. New York: Research Center for Arts and Culture, Columbia University, 1990.
This report documents results from a study of 2,000 painters across the United States regarding early education, marketplace judgments, public and peer recognition, family and financial support, grants and awards, income from art and career satisfaction.
Jeffri, Joan, ed. Information on Artists II. New York: Research Center for Arts and Culture, Columbia University, 1998.
This 6-volume study presents results of 2 parallel surveys of 7,700 artists in Los Angeles, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York, San Francisco updating information from the 1988 study and providing additional insight into artist populations of color and issues of professionalism, technology and community participation and responsibility.
Jeffri, Joan, ed. “Labor Relations and the Arts.” Journal of Arts Management and Law 16.1, (1986).
The special issue of this journal focuses on labor-management relations and the challenges and realities of artists and their institutions. Based on a conference held at Columbia University with artists, union leaders, academics and practitioners. Two volumes.
Jeffri, Joan, ed. “Labor Relations and the Arts.” Journal of Arts Management and Law 16.2 (1986).
The special issue of this journal focuses on labor-management relations and the challenges and realities of artists and their institutions. Based on a conference held at Columbia University with artists, union leaders, academics and practitioners. Two volumes.
Jeffri, Joan, J. Hosie, and Robert Greenblatt. “The Artist Alone: Work-related and Social Needs-Selected Findings.” Journal of Arts Management and Law 17 (1987): 5-22.
Results are presented and analyzed from a study of the human and social service needs of New York State artists.
Jeffri, Joan and Robert Greenblatt. Artists Who Work With Their Hands: Painters, Sculptors, Craftspeople and Artist Printmakers, A Trend Report 1970-1990 in Artist in the Workforce, Research Project #37. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts, 1994.
Data on the condition of visual artists from 1970-1990 are presented from the U.S. Census and from a number of independent studies.
Jeffri, Joan and Robert Greenblatt. “Between Extremities: The Artist Described.” Journal of Arts Management and Law 19 (1989): 5-14.
Results are presented and analyzed from a second study of human and social service needs of New York State artists.
Jeffri, Joan and David Throsby. “Professionalism and the Visual Artist.” European Journal of Cultural Policy 1.1 (1994).
The authors compare two studies, one of American painters and one of Australian painters, in looking at traditional criteria for professionalism.
Jeffri, Joan. “Philanthropy & the American Artist: A Historical Overview.” European Journal of Curatorial Policy, III: 2, 207-233, 1997.
This historical overview documents attitudes towards artists, including women and artists of color, in the philanthropic environment up to the present day.
Jeffri, Joan. “The Sociology of the Artist.” Encyclopedia of A esthetics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
This article gives an overview of the kinds of studies documenting artists from census-type surveys to a recent artist-driven survey of the public by avant-garde artists Komar and Melamid.
Jensen, Carolyn, et. al. Courage to Create. Washington, DC: National Public Radio, 1978.
Famous artists, actresses, musicians, photographers, and dancers discuss their disciplines and the inspiration behind their own creativity. The ideas of psychologist Rollo May, author of the book The Courage to Create, are also heard. Music is interspersed throughout the program.
Kellerman, Jonathan. “Pearls, Yet Swine: The Question of Creativity and Character.” Modern Painters 1996: 56-9.
The writer discusses the connection between creative talent and the criminal. He examines a long list of artists and writers who have committed criminal acts, pointing out that the artistic world has produced more than its share of cads, scoundrels, and outright villains. He maintains that as a group, artists and writers are significantly more unstable, moody, and non-conforming than the rest of the population, but that moodiness and psychopathology are not evil, and many artists live disrupted, but moral, lives. However, he points out, if one combines a biological tendency to affective swings and deviant behavior with society’s belief that creativity is necessarily linked with violence and that talent somehow excuses rude, cruel, or bizarre actions, this may create a cultural apologia that frees the artist from moral responsibility and encourages deviant behavior.
Koegler, Horst. “Trust Somebody Over Forty: A Plea for Senior Dancers to Come Out of Their Closet.” Ballet International 14.12 (1991): 23-25.
Discusses the failure of both classical dance and modern dance to develop an independent vocabulary, roles, and form of dance expression for older dancers.
Kuspit, Donald B. Idiosyncratic Identities. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Postmodernism has been described as a decadent and pluralistic
period in which avant-garde art has been institutionalized, stereotyped, and effectively neutralized; and where models of art seem to stand in ironical, nihilistic relationship to
each other. In this study, Donald Kuspit argues that only the idiosyncratic artist remains credible and convincing in the postmodern era: he or she relentlessly pursues a sense of
artistic and human identity in a situation where there are no guidelines for art, historically or socially. Idiosyncratic art, Kuspit posits, is a radically personal art that establishes unconscious communication between individuals in doubt of their identity. Functioning as a medium of self-identification, it affords a sense of authentic selfhood and communicative intimacy in a postmodern society where authenticity and intimacy seem irrelevant and absurd.
The author served as president of the AT&T Foundation for 12 years, helping to shape its philanthropy program and seeing it through political crises such as the Planned Parenthood uproar of 1991. With wisdom and experience, he shares his view of philanthropy in the context of modern business realities and discusses insider “trade secrets”. Part 1 covers the “art and craft” of corporate contributions. Part 2 discusses the current political climate affecting philanthropy. Part 3 includes views from some beneficiaries. Part 4 outlines the emerging trends such as globalization and competition.
Lynch, Sheila. “Off Main: Work Addiction and Artists.” Artweek Dec. 1996: 5.
The writer discusses the need for work and play to be synonymous. She observes that most people who embark on a career in fine art end up holding two jobs, one to make art, the other to make money. She goes on to consider such concepts as work addiction and work enthusiasm, observing that perhaps the definition of a “successful” artist is one who is driven.
In this paper Markusen critiques the notion of `the creative class’ and the fuzzy causal logic about its
relationship to urban growth. She argue that in the creative class, occupations that exhibit distinctive
spatial and political proclivities are bunched together, purely on the basis of educational attainment,
and with little demonstrable relationship to creativity. She uses a case study of artists, one element of the
purported creative class, to probe this phenomenon, demonstrating that the formation, location, urban
impact, and politics of this occupation are much more complex and distinctive than has been
suggested previously. The spatial distribution of artists is a function of semiautonomous personal
migration decisions, local nurturing of artists in dedicated spaces and organizations, and the locus of
artist-employing firms. Artists have very high rates of self-employment, boosting regional growth by
providing import-substituting consumption activities for residents and through direct export of their
work. Their contribution to attracting high-tech activity is ambiguousöcausality may work in the
opposite direction. Artists play multiple roles in an urban economyösome progressive, some prob-
lematic. She argues that artists as a group make important, positive contributions to the diversity and
vitality of cities, and their agendas cannot be conflated with neoliberal urban political regimes.
She shows the potential for artists as a political force to lead in social and urban transformation and
the implausibility of their common cause with other members of Florida’s `creative class’, such as
scientists, engineers, managers, and lawyers.
“Artists on the Art of Survival examines the lives of artists as some continue to struggle to find their place, others have managed to carve out a niche for themselves, and still other have, for a variety of reasons, moved on to something else. By exploring each of these paths of development, the book provides valuable, practical, and spiritual lessons in maintaining and surviving as a working artist.”–BOOK JACKET.
Steve Szilagyi (writing, painting, music) Travis Rink (screenwriting) Marlaina Deppe (art) “Kevin” (photography) Michael Gepner (acting) Elizabeth Frost (poetry) Sue Williams (music) Chris Chan Roberson (filmmaking) Liz Scheier (book editor) Frankie Faison and Jane Mandel (acting) Steve Harper (filmmaking) Loraine Scalamoni (fashion illustration) and Brian Schatell (illustration/children’s book author) Michael J. W. Smith (graphic design) Sean Michael Rice (playwrighting/acting/poetry/short fiction) Lou Esposito (acting) Claire Simons (TV production) George Barnes (acting/filmmaking) Pat Milkie (acting/stage direction) Mary Shanahan (dance) Michael Tierno (filmmaking/writing/teaching screenwriting/cinema studies) Jennifer Myers Johnson (acting) Robert Selcoe (music) Katherine Knowles (dance/acting) “Eileen” (book design/painting) “Jean” (TV production) “Linda” (acting/singing/dance) “Nancy” (writing) “Susan” (stage direction) Brenda Daniels (dance/choreography) Andrew Stoeckley (filmmaking/music) Mark Peters (performing/writing/filmmaking).
Montagne, Renee. Young Graffiti Artists. Horizons (Radio program). Washington, DC: National Public Radio, 1982.
Through interviews, young artists in New York City talk about how and why they paint graffiti, and city officials discuss their efforts to combat it. Also includes discussions with maintenance workers who describe the chore of cleaning it up and with art gallery owners who explain the desire to display it.
Newman, Sora. Sight Through Art—Seeing Differently. Washington, DC: National Public Radio, 1986.
Through interviews, visually handicapped artists describe their fascinating perceptions of the world and how they are able to express themselves through painting, sculpture, and photography.
Noice, Tony. The Nature of Expertise in Professional Acting: A Cognitive View. Expertise, Research and Applications. Mahwah, New Jersey: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
1. Training for the Profession
2. Psychological Research Into Actors’ Mental Processes
3. Experimental Investigation of Actors’ Learning Strategies
4. Cued Recall Task
5. The Summarization Task and Posttest Statements of Strategy
6. A Professional Actor Prepares a Role: A Think-Aloud Protocol
7. More Think-Aloud Protocols
8. A Minmonist’s Approach to Script Learning
9. The Benefits of Script Segmentation
10. Continuing the Quest
11. A General Model of Acting Cognition
12. Other Investigations of Actors and Acting
App. A. Scene From The Second Man S. N. Behrman
App. B. of T. D.
App. C. Sample Page of an Annotated Script.
Ourselves and That Promise. Videocassette. Appalshop, 1977.
A study of the relationship between an artist and his environment.
Pariser, David A. “Not Under the Lamppost: Piagetian and Neo-Piagetian Research in the Arts. A Review and Critique.” The Journal of Aesthetic Education 29 (1995): 93-108.
The writer discusses Piagetian and neo-Piagetian research in the arts. There are some drawbacks to applying the cognitive developmental approach to the study of artistic
development, even though it is generally a beneficial method. Difficulties arise when cognitive researchers confine their analysis of child art to the representation of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional medium. There is a problematic relationship between the art of children and their cognitive functioning. One solution to this problem would be to expand the connections between cognition and artistic representation to encompass all of the domains of graphic representation that become more distinct with age and experience. Cognitive models are helpful but should be used within a broader continuum of developing artistic activities rather than just the acquisition of perspectival drawing rules. The writer outlines a rationale for adopting Wolf and Perry’s model of graphic development in this field.
Perry, Gill, ed. Gender and Art. Art and its Histories 3. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1999.
Gender and Art is the third of six books in the series Art and its Histories, which form the main texts of an Open University course. The course has been designed for students who are new to the discipline but will also appeal to those who have undertaken some study in this area. This third volume examines the role of gender difference in the production, consumption and interpretation of works of art. Encompassing European art, architecture and design from the sixteenth century to the present day, it explores both the work of women artists and the ways that visual representation by male and female artists may be gendered.
Petals in the Wind. Dirs. Kim Beaman and Mieczyslaw Witkowski. Videocassette. 1976.
Shows six artists in the process of creation. Three painters, two dancers, and one poet demonstrate and speak about the importance of art in their lives.
Petrov, Vladimir M. “The Evolution of Art: An Investigation of Cycles of Left and Right Hemispherical Creativity in Art.” Leonardo 31.3 (1998): 219-23.
The writer reports on his study of the historical cyclical behavior of artists’ creativity. Using art and music experts, the stylistic orientation of European and Russian painters and composers were categorized. The study reveals that each artist’s work contains prevalent left- or right-brain hemispherical features, observing periodic cycles of 50 years of left- and right-brain creative dominance in various art mediums and apparently coincident cycles in different art media. The results of this work find applications in both studies of the evolution of art and in forecasts of future creative cycles.
Ramsay Burt. The Male Dancer: Bodies, Spectacle, Sexualities. New York: Routledge, 1995.
1. The Trouble With the Male Dancer. 2. Dance, Masculinity and Representations. 3. Looking at the Male. 4. Nijinsky: Modernism and Heterodox Representations of Masculinity. 5. Men, Modernism and Modern American Dance. Ted Shawn, American-ness and Natural Masculinity. Martha Graham and Shawn’s legacy. Dance, Modernism and the Other. Limon, Modernism and Ethnicity. Alvin Ailey and Black Masculinity. 6. Avant-Garde Strategies. Merce Cunningham. Steve Paxton. 7. Post Men.
“Artists’ Estates offers a journey into the complex and competitive art world through the distinctive lens of those who deal with the paintings, prints, and sculpture that artists leave behind after their deaths. This unique collection of interviews conducted by Magda Salvesen, the widow of the second-generation Abstract Expressionist painter Jon Schueler, provides a window into the goals and desires, the conflicts and frustrations, and the emotional and financial strains that confront widows, companions, sons, and daughters as the heirs to artists’ estates. The interviews also address the benefits and liabilities of foundations and trusts through the insights of lawyers, gallery dealers, and foundation directors.” “Readers will explore well-known estates, including those of Mark Rothko, David Smith, and Roy Lichtenstein, as well as the equally intriguing legacies of lesser-known artists whose work came to the fore in the forties and fifties.”–BOOK JACKET.
Chapter 1. Formidable antecedents On Lee Krasner and Annalee Newman / B. H. Friedman
Chapter 2. The widow is the memory Anne E. Porter, widow of Fairfield Porter Yvonne Hagen, widow of N. H. (Tony) Stubbing Harriet Vicente, widow of Esteban Vicente Phyllis Diebenkorn, widow of Richard Diebenkorn
Chapter 3. The uncertain divide : artist/wife/widow Adelie Landis Bischoff, widow of Elmer Bischoff Charlotte Park, widow of James Brooks Regina Cherry, widow of Herman Cherry May Stevens, widow of Rudolf Baranik
Chapter 4. Unfinished dialogues : the artist and the gallery Jeanne Bultman, widow of Fritz Bultman Stephen L. Schlesinger on the Fritz Bultman Estate Anne Arnold, widow of Ernest Briggs, with Bob Brooks Anita Shapolsky on her foundation and gallery Jeffrey Bergen on the Romare Bearden Estate
Chapter 5. The next generation March Avery, daughter of Milton and Sally Avery Christopher Schwabacher, son of Ethel Schwabacher Helen McNeil, daughter of George McNeil
Chapter 6. Foundation samplings : SoHo and Southampton Sanford Hirsch on the Adolph and Esther Gottlieb Foundation Michael Solomon on the Ossorio Foundation
Chapter 7. Untimely deaths Peter Stevens on the David Smith estate Helen Park Bigelow, daughter of David Park Peggy Gillespie, widow of Gregory Gillespie
Chapter 8. A certain distance Rae Ferren, widow of John Ferren John Crawford, son of Ralston Crawford Robert Jamieson, companion of Leon Polk Smith Joan Marter on the Dorothy Dehner Foundation
Chapter 9. To the future Kate and Christopher Rothko, daughter and son of Mark Rothko Stephen Polcari on the archives of American art Ralph Lerner on art law Jack Cowart on the Roy Lichtenstein Foundation.
Sawyer, R. Keith. Creativity in Performance. Greenwich, Connecticut: Ablex, 1997.
This book is for readers interested in the latest research on creativity in performance. The chapters cover an impressive interdisciplinary scope, and include studies of jazz, African dancing, improvisational theater, situation comedies, children’s puppet plays, and Nepalese drumming. Each chapter speaks to broader themes that will be of interest to students and researchers in psychology, anthropology, communication, musicology, and performance studies.
Introduction, R. Keith Sawyer
Pt. I. Musical Performance. 2. Give and Take: The Collective Conversation of Jazz Performance, Paul Berliner. 3. Musical Improvisation: A Systems Approach, Mihaly Csikszenimihalyi and Grant Rich. 4. What the Drums Had to Say – And What We Wrote About Them, David Henderson. 5. What’s Sound Got to Do With It? Jazz, Poststructuralism, and the Construction of Cultural Meaning, Ingrid Monson.
Pt. II. Creativity on Stage. 6. The Creative Decision-Making Process in Group Situation Comedy Writing, Steven Pritzker and Mark Runco. 7. Creativity in Ubakala, Dallas Youth, and Exotic Dance, Judith Hanna. 8. Improvisational Theater: An Ethnotheory of Conversational Practice, R. Keith Sawyer.
Pt. III. Performance in Everyday Life. 9. School Performance: Improvisational Processes in Development and Education, Jacquelyn Baker-Sennett and Eugene Matusov. 10. Responsive Order: The Phenomenology of Dramatic and Scientific Performance, Robert Crease. 11. Poetics and Performance as Critical Perspectives on Language and Social Life, Richard Bauman and Charles Briggs. 12. The Improvisational Performance of Culture in Realtime Discursive Practice, Michael Silverstein.
“Art Practice as Research: Inquiry in the Visual Arts presents a compelling argument that the creative and cultural inquiry undertaken by artists is a form of research. The text explores themes, practices, and contexts of artistic inquiry, positioning them within the discourse of research.” “Art Practice as Research is perfectly suited as a text for courses in art education, the visual arts, research methods in art education, as well as general research methods courses in education and the humanities. This will also be an invaluable reference for anyone with an interest in interdisciplinary research in the social sciences and the role of imaginative inquiry in human understanding.”–BOOK JACKET.
Introduction : reviewing visual arts research
Part 1. Contexts for visual arts research
Chapter 1. Pigment to pixel
Chapter 2. Paradigms lost
Part 2. Theorizing visual arts practice
Chapter 3. Explanation, understanding, and beyond
Chapter 4. Visual knowing
Chapter 5. Artist as theorist
Part 3. Visual arts research practices
Chapter 6. Practice as theory Epilogue : conclusions and beginnings.
Swartz, Mark. “Shrinking Barbara: Psychotherapy and the Contemporary Artist.” New Art Examiner 27.1 (1999): 42-4.
Part of a special section on emotions in art. The writer considers the psychological and emotional makeup of artists. He discusses the case of Barbara, an artist who sought therapy but abandoned her first therapist for seeming unsympathetic and uninterested in her work as an artist. He also examines a number of works and theories including the “Van Gogh Syndrome”—the enduring myth that artistic genius and insanity go hand in hand.
“Artists at Work provides readers with a glimpse into the working studios of twenty of today’s most important artists. Seidner brings the readers into the studios, displaying the working space, the tools, and the work-in-progress. For each artist, Seidner includes a black and white portrait, as well as color photographs of the studio and his reflections on his personal encounters with the artist.”–BOOK JACKET.
Interviews with Ross Bleckner Christian Boltanski Louise Bourgeois John Cage Chuck Close Roy Lightenstein Roni Horn Brice Marden Joan Mitchell Jack Pierson Richard Serra Philip Taaffe Cy Twombly Terry Winters Francesco Clemente Milton Resnick Felix Gonzales-Torres Julian Lethbridge Cindy Sherman Jasper Johns.
Chapter 1. The Advent of Modernism. The Twentieth Century Begins. Musical Modernism and the Public. Music and the Democratic American Society. The Music Public
Chapter 2. Modernists and the Public: The First Contact. The Composer’s Values and Perceived Role in Music. The Composer as Superior Being. What Modernism Reveals. The Disdain for the General Audience
Chapter 3. Music from a Lost Generation. Five Radicals. Neoclassicists. The Contributions of Jazz. A Miscellany of Composers. Supporters of the Vanguard. The General Public for Music
Chapter 4. Modernists and the Public: The Second Contact. Revised Values and Perceptions. Musical Centralism. A Changed Valuation of the General Audience. Redefining the Vanguard Audience. Linking the Twenties to the Fifties
Chapter 5. Music for a Burdened Homeland. The Compatriotic Composers. The Nonaligned Composers. A Second Look at the General Audience
Chapter 6. The Resurgence of the Avant-Garde. The Transformed Musical Environment. Postwar Conundrums. The Shifting Public Scene. The Trials of the Traditional Mainstream
Chapter 7. Insular Modernism. Serialism and Atonality. The Move to Isolation. The Resurrection of the Autonomous Artist. The Public Response
Chapter 8. Iconoclastic Modernism. Adventuring Into the Unthinkable. John Cage: Music from a Singular Perspective. Radically Different Musical Approaches. The Audience Gives Its Answer
Chapter 9. The Second Wave of Conciliatory Composers. Changing Viewpoints and Approaches to Composition. Trying to Find an Appropriate Music. Reading the Listener’s Mind
Chapter 10. Denouement. The Condition of Musical Culture. The More Immediate Residue of Modernism. The Music Public: Its State of Mind.
Taylor, Ceci and Jim Taylor. Psychology of Dance. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1995.
The techniques and exercises described in Psychology of Dance will help dancers of all ages and abilities overcome mental obstacles and reach their fullest artistic potential. Authors Jim Taylor and Ceci Taylor bring a combined expertise in sport psychology and dance to their discussion of the important psychological issues that affect dance performance. In addition to theoretical information, they provide practical techniques and exercises you can incorporate into your teaching to help dancers optimize their performances.
1. Raising the Curtain on the Performing Attitude
6. Dance Imagery
7. Slumps, Stress, and Burnout
8. Psychology of Dance Injury Rehabilitation
9. Developing a Psychological Program for Enhanced Performance (PPEP).
Thomas, Helen, ed. Dance, Gender, and Culture. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
This unique collection of essays, written specially for this volume, seeks to explore the possibilities of a number of ways in which dance and gender intersect within particular cultural contexts. What makes the book special is its multidisciplinary focus with contributions from a variety of sources such as cultural studies, sociology, anthropology, dance studies, film studies and journalism. The contributors draw on a wide range of theoretical approaches such as feminism, psychoanalysis, ethnography, film theory and sub-cultural theory. These perspectives are used to explore aspects of the relation between dance and gender in a range of cultural contexts, from social and disco dance to performance dance, to the Hollywood musical and to dances from different cultures. The collection clearly demonstrates that dance can provide a rich resource for subject areas like sociology, cultural studies and feminism, which have all but ignored it, and it also shows that dance scholarship can benefit from the insights that these more established disciplines have to offer.
Pt. 1. Cultural Studies. 1. Dance, Gender and Culture, Ted Polhemus. 2. Dancing in the Dark: Rationalism and the Neglect of Social Dance, Andrew Ward. 3. Ballet, Gender and Cultural Power, Cynthia J. Novack. 4. ‘I Seem to Find the Happiness I Seek’: Heterosexuality and Dance in the Musical, Richard Dyer.
Pt. 2. Ethnography. 5. An-Other Voice: Young Women Dancing and Talking, Helen Thomas. 6. Gender Interchangeability Among the Tiwi, Andree Grau. 7. ‘Saturday Night Fever’: An Ethnography of Disco Dancing, David Walsh. 8. Classical Indian Dance and Women’s Status, Judith Lynne Hanna.
Pt. 3. Theory/Criticism. 9. Dance, Feminism and the Critique of the Visual, Roger Copeland. 10. ‘You put your left foot in, then you shake it all about…’: Excursions and Incursions into Feminism and Bausch’s Tanztheater, Ana Sanchez-Colberg. 11. ‘She might pirouette on a daisy and it would not bend’: Images of Femininity and Dance Appreciation, Lesley-Anne Sayers. 12. Still Dancing Downwards and Talking Back, Zagba Oyortey. 13. The Anxiety of Dance Performance, Valerie Rimmer.
Throsby, David. Economics and Culture. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, England: 2005.
This book brings together two very disparate areas, economics and culture, considering both the economic aspects of cultural activity, and the cultural context of economics and economic behavior. The author discusses how cultural goods are valued in both economic and cultural terms, and introduces the concepts of cultural capital and sustainability. The book goes on to discuss the economics of creativity in the production of cultural goods and services; culture in economic development; the cultural industries; and cultural policy. An important topic analyzed in a stimlulating and non-technical style.
Vigier, Rachel. Gestures of Genius: Women, Dance, and the Body. Ontario: Mercury Press, 1994.
Gestures of Genius is for all women seeking to understand the history in their own bodies, an engaging, uplifting, and accessible book about recapturing freedom of movement. Rachel Vigier, dance and social theorist, begins with a brief overview of the history of women’s dance and the relationship between society and sanctions on women’s movement, then focuses on the histories of famous women with an important relationship to dance (including Isadora Duncan and Zelda Fitzgerald). The last third of the book is comprised of the stories of contemporary women dancers from a variety of communities, whose stories of perseverance and dedication to the art of movement are enlightening, freeing, and joyful.
The Larger Gesture. 1. The Truth of the Body. 2. Women’s Dances. 3. Maternal Consciousness
Re-Thinking the Body. 1. Politicizing the Body. 2. Isadora Duncan: Freeing the Body. 3. Ballet Masters: Colonizing the Body
Instincts for Dance. 1. Leonora Carrington: Down Below. 2. Zelda Fitzgerald: Order and Disorder. 3. H.D.: Woman is Perfect.
Voices of the Body. Pat Hall Smith. Anahid Sofian. Sun Ock Lee. Ritha Devi. Rina Singha. Anahi Galante. Maureen Fleming. Sara Pearson. Susana Galilea. Johanna Boyce. Crowsfeet Dance Collective.
Weber, Lilo. “Dancer in Transition.” Ballet International/Tanz Aktuell. English ed. (1995): 46-49.
Report on a symposium in Lausanne which addressed the issue of ending a professional career, a crucial turning point in the life of a dancer.
Weston, Edward Henry, ed. After the Dance. Proc. of Conference on Career Transition for Dancers, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. New York, 1982.
A project of the Labor Institute for Human Enrichment; project director, Edward Weston. Funded by the National Endowment for the Arts and Actors’ Equity Association. “Report of the problems of professional dancers, International Federation of Actors, London, September 1980” (excerpt): p. 30-31. “A second career for dancers through the Dancers’ Resettlement Fund”: p. 32-36. Includes bibliographical references (p. 52-54).
Wilton, Nancy Cetlin. Antecedents of Artistic Success [computer] File: A Study of the Early Lives of Women Visual Artists. Radcliffe College, Henry A. Murray Research Center. 1978.
This study examined the early development and family backgrounds of two groups of female visual artists: (1) those who have attained considerable success and recognition as professional artists; and (2) those who also consider themselves to be professional artists but who have obtained less recognition for their work in art. Thirty women between the ages of 26 and 45 who considered themselves to be professional sculptors, graphic artists,
metalsmiths, ceramists, and photographers were recruited from a well-known artists’ union and from advanced art classes in the continuing education division of a recognized
professional art school in a large eastern seacoast city. Specified external criteria were used to differentiate the more successful from the less successful group. Data were collected in a personal interview session with each participant by means of: (1) a personal data questionnaire, which included typical background and demographic items; (2) an in-depth interview, which included sections concerning recollections of childhood activities and interests, parents’ child-rearing techniques, and the participant’s present life situation; (3) the Kinetic-Family-Drawing projective drawing technique; and (4) the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), consisting of five pictures specifically selected for their portrayal of women in several different social and work-related situations. The Murray Center has copies of the TAT protocols, transcripts of the interviews, and copies of the Kinetic-Family-Drawings. Computer-accessible data are available as well.
Sample characteristics: sample size: 50 or fewer; time: 70s; race: not asked; age: 23-29, 30-39, 40-49; number of generations: 1; gender: female; ses: middle.
Data collection methods: design: case study/oral history; length of data collection: na; measures: interview, questionnaire, psychological tests.
Follow-up possible: yes; follow-up available: no.
#1 Employment and Unemployment of Artists: 1970-1975.
Census data and Bureau of Labor statistics findings charted to compare employment and unemployment among various kinds of artists and the general labor force. April 1976. 32pp.
#2 To Survey American Crafts: A Planning Study.
An assessment of information about craft artists and their work prepared as an aid to planning of new research. July 1977. 32pp.
#3 Understanding the Employment of Actors.
Data from the personnel files of Actors’ Equity Association interpreted by researchers help explain theatre employment data systems and the complex conditions governing economic survival of actors. Sept 1977. 36pp.
#5 Where Artists Live: 1970.
Tables, maps, and text summarize census data that show national distribution of the American artist population. Oct 1977. 80pp.
#7 Minorities and Women in the Arts: 1970.
Census data analyzed to describe the sex and minority makeup of our artist population. Jan 1979. 32pp.
#10 Selected Characteristics of Artists: 1970.
Self-employment patterns, migration patterns, and household and family characteristics of artists as revealed in census data. Nov 1978. 32pp.
#12 Artists Compared by Age, Sex, and Earnings in 1970 and 1976.
Census data compared with the 1976 Survey of Income and Education to reveal the changes in the size and composition of America’s artist population during the 1970s. Jan 1980. 56pp. ISBN 0-89062-077-6.
#16 Artist Employment and Unemployment: 1971 – 1980.
Figures from the Current Population Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census make it possible to view trends in artists employment in light of those observed among all professional and technical workers. Jan 1982. 44pp. ISBN 0-89062-135-7.
#18 Visual Artists in Houston, Minneapolis, Washington, and San Francisco: Earnings and Exhibition Opportunities.
Investigates how artists get work selected for exhibition and examines the relationship between exhibition and economic success of artists in America’s smaller art-market cities. Oct 1984. 48pp. ISBN 0-89062-191-8.
#19 Where Artists Live 1980.
Analyzes the data gathered in the 1980 U.S. Census and compares them with the figures for 1970 to reveal growth and movement in the artist population. Mar 1987. 48pp. ISBN 0-89062-209-4.
Provides an analysis of the results of a survey of choreographers in New York, San Francisco, Chicago, and Washington, DC. The survey obtained data on working conditions, financial status, performance opportunities, and funding for choreographers in each of the cities. Nov 1993. 94pp. ISBN 0-16-042946-3. This publication is out of print and is no longer available.
#29 Trends in Artist Occupations: 1970-1990.
A report which discusses information on various characteristics of the artist population and its position in the U.S. labor force. Data are presented in demographic contexts, as well as by artistic discipline. Based on data extracted from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 Censuses of the Population conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. August 1994. 108pp. ISBN 0-16-045347-X
#37 Artists in the Workforce: Employment and Earnings, 1970-1990.
This report examines employment and earnings trends in artist occupations from 1970 to 1990 using a variety of databases, including both large scale Federal surveys and smaller targeted surveys of artists groups. Alper, Wassall, Jeffri, Greenblatt, Kay, Butcher, and Chartrand. 1996. 152 pp. ISBN 0-929765-48-6. Paper. $13.95. Available from Seven Locks Press; P.O. Box 25689; Santa Ana, CA 92799. Telephone — 714/545-2526 or 800/354-5348.
#2. Artist Employment in 1982 (January 24, 1983).
Update using the data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1983. Includes analysis and comparison for 1975, 1980 – 1982 for the occupations of actors, architects, authors, dancers, designers, musicians/composers, painters/sculptors, photographers, radio/TV announcers, teachers of art, drama and music, and other artists not elsewhere classified.
#3. Artists Increase 81% in the 1970s (April 27, 1983).
Analysis of data from the 1980 Census of Population covering increases in the artist labor force for the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
#4. Women and Minorities in Artist Occupations (July 4, 1983).
Analysis of data from the 1980 Census of Population comparing growth by women and minorities in the artist occupations for the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
#5. Artists in the Large Metropolitan Areas (September 5, 1983).
Analysis of data from the 1980 Census of Population for the 60 largest Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas where 65% of the American artist labor force lived in 1980.
#7. Artist Employment in 1983 (March 15, 1984).
An update for the year 1983 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1984. Also includes information on the revision of the Occupational Classification System, used for the first time by BLS in 1983.
#9. Changing Proportions of Men and Women in the Artist Occupations 1970 – 1980 (March 4, 1985).
A special study by the Bureau of the Census revised estimates of the 1970 Census in the light of the 1980 Occupational Classification System. The results of this special study were used in the preparation of this note to compare 1970 with 1980 for all artist occupations in terms of numbers of the labor force and of men and women. Among other things, the adjustments increase the base of women in some of the artist occupations, particularly designers, as a result of in-transfers from occupational groups that were not previously considered in the artist cluster of occupations.
#10. Artists Real Earnings Decline 37% in the 1970s (March 5, 1985).
Median earnings are compared for artists in each of the eleven occupations for 1969 and 1979, the reference years used in the 1970 and 1980 Censuses. The note contains both actual dollar earnings and constant dollar earnings (adjusted for inflation) and compares median women artist earnings in each of the occupations with those of men in both 1969 and 1979.
#11. Artist Employment in 1984 (March 5, 1985).
Updating information for the year 1984 from the annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1985.
#15. Artist Employment in 1985 (March 10, 1986).
An update for the year 1985 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1986.
#22. Artist Employment in 1986 (March 20, 1987).
An update for the year 1986 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1987.
#29. Artist Employment in 1987 (February 17, 1988).
An update for the year 1987 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1988.
#31. Artist Employment in 1988 (April 17, 1989).
An update for the year 1988 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in January 1989. This note also discusses the trends in the individual artist occupations with regard to employment and unemployment from 1983 to 1988.
#33. Artist Employment in 1989 (September 24, 1990).
An update for the year 1989 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1990. This note also discusses the trends in the individual artist occupations with regard to employment and unemployment from 1983 to 1989.
#35. Artist Employment in 1990 (October 21, 1991).
An update for the year 1990 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1991. This note also discusses the trends in the individual artist occupations with regard to employment and unemployment from 1983 to 1990.
#37. Artist Employment in 1991 (November 30, 1992).
An update for the year 1991 of annual employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1992. This note also discusses the trends in the individual artist occupations with regard to employment and unemployment from 1985 to 1991.
#39. Artist Employment in 1992 (July 30, 1993).
This is an annual update of employment data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment in 11 artist occupations described in the note grew by 6% from 1991 to 1992. The unemployment rate in artist occupations also grew from 1991 to 1992 increasing from 5.3% to 5.7%.
#40. Artists Increase 54% in the 1980s (August 12, 1993).
This note reports information from the 1990 Census of Population on artist occupations. The artist labor force in 11 occupations totaled 1,671,278 in 1990 — a 54% increase from 1980. The note provides information on the size of the individual artist occupation labor forces as reported in the 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses.
#41. Regional and State Trends for Artists: 1970 – 1990 (August 12, 1993).
This note provides state and regional estimates for artist occupations based on the 1970, 1980, and 1990 Censuses of Population. All 50 states are ranked by the size of their artist labor force and the concentration of artists in the total state labor forces in 1990, 1980, and 1970. Regional estimates are also provided for the four major Census Bureau regions — Northeast, Midwest, South, and West.
#42. Artists in Metropolitan Areas – 1990 (August 12, 1993).
This note provides estimates based on the 1990 Census of Population for artist labor forces in the 30 metropolitan areas with the largest number of artists. The note also provides information on the 10 metropolitan areas with the highest concentration of artists in their labor forces.
#54. Artist Employment in 1993 (February 28, 1994).
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the artist work force declined from 1992 levels after two years of growth. The total artist work force fell from 1,735,000 in 1992 to 1,708,000 in 1993.
#57. Artist Employment in 1994 (July, 1995).
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there was virtually no growth in artist employment from 1993 to 1994. The number of artists employed in 1994 stood at 1,622,000, only 1,000 more than in 1993.
#58. Artist Employment in 1995 (October 1996).
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there was substantial growth in employment in artist occupations in 1995, but the unemployment rate remained high.
#60. Artist Employment in America (August 1997).
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the total number employed in eleven artist occupation groups grew from 1.6 to 1.8 million from 1995 to 1996. This note can be downloaded as a Microsoft Word document, version 97 for Windows by going to http://arts.endow.gov/pub/ResearchNotes.html#Artists.
#61. Artist Employment in America – 1997 (March, 1998).
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment in artist occupations in 1997 continued to grow faster than in professional occupations as a whole (3.7% versus 2.6%). Total employment in the eleven artist occupations stood at 1.9 million in 1997. This note can be downloaded as a Microsoft Word document, version 97 for Windows by going to http://arts.endow.gov/pub/ResearchNotes.html#Artists.
#73. Artist Employment in 1998 (April, 1999).
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment in artist occupations grew to nearly 2 million. Seventy thousand more artists were employed in one of eleven artist occupations in 1998 than in 1997. This note can be downloaded as a Microsoft Word document, version 97 for Windows by going to http://arts.endow.gov/pub/ResearchNotes.html#Artists.