The Research Center for Arts and Culture has compiled this bibliography as part of an ongoing effort to raise awareness about individual artists through research on their personal and economic status within society, cognitive and physical development, training and education, and relation to other issues pertinent to the arts field and society-at-large.
The goal of the bibliography is to create an overview of available research about artists. The parameters for inclusion in the bibliography are relatively simple. The first parameter can be eloquently described as “no puff pieces”. That is, the articles and books must be based on research, empirical or otherwise, and included in journals or publications known for producing such work. To that end, we limited articles from newspapers, weekly magazines or other journals lacking a research or academic underpinning unless the article in question clearly was based on research.
The second parameter is even simpler than the first. All citations must deal with individual artists. This omits data collected about arts organizations, public participation in the arts, economic impact studies, or other arts-related topics unless the publication discussed the ramifications of the research for individual artists. The bibliography does include research that has been conducted on artists from all artistic disciplines and fields, including arts administration, sociology, medicine, law, arts education, economics and psychology.
Columbia University’s vast system of 27 libraries provided the foundation for our research. Its databases were culled by cross referencing Library of Congress subject categories. Categories included a diverse array of artistic professions, such as musicians, painters, dancers, etc. These artistic categories were cross referenced with varying fields of study, including social science, psychology, arts education, arts administration, economics and law. For example, a search was run under the classification of “dancer—psychology”. All listings that fit these subject categories and also indicated a Library of Congress category of individual artists were researched further to justify its inclusion in the bibliography.
After the initial search, other databases were explored, including Lexis/Nexis Academic Universe and EUREKA systems, using the same or similar Library of Congress categories. Additional information was provided by the Center’s board members, the National Art Education Association, the National Endowment for the Arts, and from organizations and individual researchers across the country and the world. As our research progressed, we noted that many citations contained some form of annotation. Therefore, in the interest of providing as much information as possible to assist users of this document, pre-existing annotations are incorporated into the bibliography.
While the listing is extensive, it is not comprehensive. Instead it serves as a beginning reference point for those interested in research about artists. Because this document is a work in progress, we look to its readers to help us locate additional references. As more users of the document provide additional citations, the bibliography will expand as a developing resource for those wishing to do further research on artists.
(For further details, visit the RCAC’s annotated bibliography …)
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A Dancer’s Regime: Life After Performance Career. Eye on Dance 231. Videotape. Dir. Richard Sheridan. Arc Videodance, 1987. 28 min.
Abercrombie, Nigel. Artists and Their Public. Paris: Unesco Press, 1975.
Adair, Christy. Women and Dance: Sylphs and Sirens. New York: New York University Press, 1992.
Adler, J. “Artists’ Job Market Experience.” Journal of Arts Management and Law. 13 (1983): 177-183.
Adler, M. “Stardom and Talent.” American Economic Review. 75 (1985): 208-212.
AFL-CIO. Professional Workers and Unions: A Reference Manual. Washington, DC: Dept. of Professional Employees AFL-CIO, 1993.
Albright, Thomas and Beverly Hennessey, eds. On Art and Artists: Essays. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1989.
Alper, Gerald. Portrait of the Artist as a Young Patient: Psychodynamic Studies of the Creative Personality. New York: Insight Books, 1992.
Alper, Neil, et al. Artists in the Workforce. Santa Ana, California: Seven Locks Press, 1996.
Alper, Neil and Galligan, A. “Recession to Rennaissance: A Comparison of Rhode Island Artists 1981 and 1997.” Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society 29:3 1999: 178-203.
Alper, Neil and Gregory Wassail. The Write Stuff: Employment and Earnings of Authors, 1970-1990. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts, 1994.
Alper, Neil and Gregory Wassail, and Rebecca Davidson. Art Work: Artists in the New England and Labor Market. Cambridge, MA: The New England Foundation for the Arts, 1983.
Alper, Neil and Gregory Wassall. Art Work. Cambridge: New England Foundation for the Arts, 1983.
Alper, Neil and Gregory Wassall. “Determinants of Artists’ Earnings.” The Economics of Cultural Industries. Hendon, et. al., eds. Akron: Association for Cultural Economics, 1984.
Alper, Neil and Gregeory Wassall. “Occupational Characteristics of Artists: A Statistical Analysis.” Journal of Cultural Economics 9 (1985): 13-3.
Alper, Neil and Gregory Wassall. “T oward a Unified Theory of the Determinants of the Earnings of Artists.” Cultural Economics. Ruth Towse and Abdul Khakee, eds. Heidelberg: Spranger-Verlag, 1992.
Alper, Neil and Gregory Wassall. “When Is an Artist an Artist: An Analysis of Factors Related to Claiming Membership to this Profession.” Journal of Arts Management and Law 19 (1990): 37-50.
American Federation of Musicians. Wage Scales and Conditions in the Symphony Orchestra, 1979-80 Season. New York: American Federation of Musicians, 1980.
American Symphony Orchestra League. The Participation of Blacks in Professional Orchestras: Survey and Study. Washington, DC: The League, 1990.
Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane and Lucinda Ebersole, eds. Women, Creativity, and the Arts: Critical Autobiographical Perspectives. New York: Continuum, 1995.
Apresian, Z. G. Uniform Title: Svoboda Khudozhestvennogo Tvorchestva. English Title: Freedom and the Artist. Trans. Bernard Meares. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1968.
Arnheim, Daniel D. Dance Injuries: Their Prevention and Care. St. Louis: Mosby, 1980.
Australia Council. Visual and Crafts Artists: A National Study of the Australian Crafts and Visual Arts Industry. Sydney: Australia Council, 1989.
Bach, Claudia. “Artists Navigate the Economic Downturn: Fear and Anxiety, or Resilience and Creativity.” Grantmakers in the Arts Reader, 20.2, Summer 2009.
Balos, Karen. “Crazy Maybe, But Not Insane.” Artweek Dec. 1994: 25.
Balos, Karen. “Why Is It So Hard For Me to Sit Here and Pay Attention to Myself?”Artweek Apr. 1995: 33.
Balos, Karen. “Working Artist: Coping with Criticism.” Artweek Aug. 1996: 5.
Banes, Sally. Dancing Women: Female Bodies on Stage. New York: Routledge, 1998.
Barnett, Ivan. “Isolation: Artist’s Friend or Foe?” Crafts Report 24.265 (1998): 28-30.
Barron, Frank X., et. al. Artists in the Making. New York: Seminar Press, 1972.
Basista, P. (ed.) Graphic Artists Guild Handbook: Pricing and Ethical Guidelines, 9th edition. New York: Graphic Artists Guild, 1997.
Batschmann, Oskar, Uniform Title: Ausstellungskunstler. English Title: The Artist in the Modern World: The Conflict Between Market and Self-Expression. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1997.
Baumol W. and W. G. Bowen. Performing Arts: The Economic Dilemma. New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1966.
Baumol, William J., Jeffri, Joan, and Throsby, David. Making Changes: Facilitating The Transition of Dancers to Post-Performance Careers (2004), New York: Research Center for Arts and Culture, Teachers College Columbia University.
Bayles, David and Ted Orland. Art & Fear: Observations on the Perils (and Rewards) of Artmaking. Santa Barbara: Capra, 1993.
Becker, Carol, and Ann Wiens, eds. The Artist in Society: Rights, Roles, and Responsibilities. Chicago: New Art Examiner Press, 1995.
Becker, Carol, ed. The Subversive Imagination: Artist, Society, and Social Responsibility. New York: Routledge, 1994.
Becker, Carol. Zones of Contention: Essays on Art, Institutions, Gender, and Anxiety. SUNY Series. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.
Becker, Howard Saul. Art Worlds. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
Becker, Howard Saul. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: The Free Press, 1973.
Beckerman, Bernard. Theatrical Presentation: Performer, Audience, and Act. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Bejjani, Fadi J. Current Research in Arts Medicine. New Jersey: Cappella Books, 1993.
Bellow, Rachael Newton. “What Artists Want.” Deciding What to Do. Cambridge: Center for Effective Philanthropy, December 1986.
Bennett, Dawn. “Creative artists or cultural practitioners? Holistic practice in Australia’s cultural industries.” Journal of Australian Studies 90(2006): 147-158.
Bennett, Dawn. “Creative Migration: A Western Australian Case Study of Creative Artists.” Australian Geographer 41.1 (2010): 117-28.
Bennett, Dawn. “Dancer Or Dance Artist? Dance Careers and Identity.” The International Journal of the Arts in Society: Annual Review 3.3 (2008): 73-8.
Bennett, Dawn. “Music, musicians and careers”, Chapter 1 in Life in the real world: How to make music graduates employable, Common Ground Publishing, pp.63-78, October 2012.
Berardi, Gigi M. “Case Studies of Older-Aged Dancers and the Factors that are Critical to Injury Prevention: Part One.” Kinesiology and Medicine for Dance 12.1 (1989-90): 12-19.
Bergman, Charles and Sanford Hirsch. “Artists Remembering Artists-A Tale of Two Foundations.” Vantage Point (1986): 9-13.
Berry, Wendell. “People, Land and Community.” In Standing by Words. Berkeley: North Point Press, 1983.
Bielby, Denise D., William T. Bielby. “Audience Aesthetics and Popular Culture.” The Cultural Turn. Friedland, Roger and John Mohr (eds.), Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming, 2000.
Bielby, Denise D., C. Lee Harrington, and William T. Bielby. “Whose Stories Are They? Fans’ Engagement with Soap Opera Narratives in Three Sites of Fan Activity.” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 42: 2 (1999).
Bielby, William T. and Denise D. Bielby. “Organizational Mediation of Project-Based Careers: Talent Agencies and the Careers of Screenwriters.” American Sociological Review. 64: 1 (1999).
Bielby, William T. and Denise D. Bielby. The 1998 Hollywood Writers’ Report: Telling ALL Our Stories. Los Angeles, CA: Writers Guild of America, West, 1998.
Bielby, Denise D. and William T. Bielby. “Women and Men in Film: Gender Inequality among Writers in Culture Industries.” Gender & Society. 10: 3 (1996).
Bielby, William T. and Denise D. Bielby. “‘All Hits are Flukes:’ Institutionalized Decision-Making and the Rhetoric of Network Prime-Time Program Development.” American Journal of Sociology. 99: 5 (1994).
Bielby, Denise D. and William T. Bielby. “The Hollywood ‘Graylist’? Audience Demographics and Age Stratification Among Television Writers.” (eds.), Current Research on Occupations and Professions (Creators of Culture). Cantor, Muriel G. and Cheryl Zollars (Eds.) Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1993.
Bielby, William T. “Aging in the Television Industry.” Age Has A Future: Maturity and the Media. Conference Proceedings published by the American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. (1993): 34-37, 74-76.
Bielby, William T. and Denise D. Bielby. The 1993 Hollywood Writers’ Report: A Survey of the Employment of Writers in the Film, Broadcast, and Cable Industries for the Period 1987-1991. West Hollywood, CA: Writers Guild of America, West, 1993.
Bielby, William T. and Denise D. Bielby. “Cumulative Disadvantage in an Unstructured Labor Market: Gender Differences in the Careers of Television Writers.” Work and Occupations. 1992.
Bielby, William T. and Denise D. Bielby. The 1989 Hollywood Writers’ Report: Unequal Access, Unequal Pay. West Hollywood, CA: Writers Guild of America, West, 1989.
Bielby, William T. and Denise D. Bielby. “Agency Representation and Writers’ Employment in Television and Film.” Report prepared for the Writers Guild of America, West, West Hollywood, CA, February 1995.
Bielby, William T. and Denise D. Bielby. “Employment Opportunities for Television Writers: Continuity and Change from 1960 to the Present.” Report prepared for the Writers Guild of America, West Hollywood, CA, 1987.
Blake, Nayland, Lawrence Rinder and Amy Scholder. In a Different Light: Visual Culture, Sexual Identity, Queer Practice. Horizons (Radio program). San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1995.
Blaug, Mark. “The Empirical Status of Human Capital Theory: A Slightly Jaundiced View.” Journal Of Economic Literature. 14 (1976).
Blom, Diana, Dawn Bennett, and David Wright. “How Artists Working in Academia View Artistic Practice as Research: Implications for Tertiary Music Education.” International Journal of Music Education 29.4 (2011): 359-73.
Bowness, Alan. The Conditions of Success: How the Modern Artist Rises to Fame. Walter Neurath Memorial Lectures 21. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1989.
Boyd, Jenny and Holly George-Warren. Musicians in Tune: Seventy-Five Contemporary Musicians Discuss the Creative Process. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.
Braden, Su. Artists and People. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978.
Bradshaw, Thomas F. “Predicting Artist Employment in the Year 2000.” Cultural Economics ‘88: An American Perspective. Volume II of the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Cultural Economics and Planning, Ottawa, Canada, September 27-30, 1988.
Bradshaw, Thomas F. “Forecasting Artist Employment to the Year 2000.” The Modern Muse: The Support and Condition of Artists. Proceedings of the American Council of the Arts (ACA) Arts Research Seminar, “The Individual Artist: Condition and Support”, Baltimore, MD, March 29, 1988.
Bradshaw, Thomas F. “Projections sur l’evolution de l’emploi le secteur artistique.” Economic Et Culture: Les Outils De: ‘Economiste A L’Epreuve. Volume 1 of the proceedings of the Fourth International Conférence on Cultural Economics, May 1986.
Bradshaw, Thomas F. “Projecting Growth in Artist Occupations.” Artists and Cultural Consumers. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cultural Economics, 1986.
Bradshaw, Thomas F. “An Examination of the Comparability of 1970 and 1980 Census Statistics on Artist Occupations.” Economics of Cultural Industries. Third International Conference on Cultural Economics and Planning, 1984.
Breda, John and Patrick Kulesa. Stress and Job Satisfaction among Symphony Musicians. Enanston, IL: Symphony Orchestra Institute, 1999.
Brighton, A. and N. Pearson. The Economic Situation of the Visual Artist. London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 1982.
Buckland, Theresa J., ed. Dance in the Field: Theory, Methods, and Issues in Dance Ethnography. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.
Burkey, Evelyn F. “The Creative Artist’s Problems.” Broadcasting and Bargaining: Labor Relations in Radio and Television. Allen B. Koening, ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970.
Burlingham, Michael J. “Anatomy of a Sculptor” American Artist 64.692 (2000): 52-58.
Burns, Sarah. Inventing the Modern Artist: Art and Culture in Gilded Age America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
Butler, Donnell. Studies of Artists: An Annotated Directory, Working Paper #12, Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies, Princeton University, Summer 2000, for Studies up to the late 1990s.
Cabanne, Pierre. Outlaws of Art. Trans. Denis George. London: Elek Books, 1963.
Canada Council. A Canadian Dictionary and Selected Statistical Profile of Arts Employment. Working Document 525, Research and Evaluation.
Canada Council. Trends in Support to Individual Artists by Discipline, Program and Sex. Document 520, Research and Evaluation, 1982.
Canada Council. Trends in Support to Artists by Discipline, Gender, Language, Citizenship and Program. 7th Edition. Ottawa: Canada Council, 1992.
Canada, Ministry of Culture and Communications. The Status of the Artist. Canada: Ministry of Culture and Communications, 1990.
Canaday, John. The Artist as Social Critic/The Artist as a Visionary. Slide. Metropolitan Seminars in Art 5. Center for Humanities, 1972.
Cantor, Muriel and Anne Peters. “The Employment and Unemployment of Screen Actors in the United States.” Economic Policy for the Arts. W.S. Hendon, et. al., eds. Cambridge: ABT, 1980.
Cantor, Muriel and Cheryl Zollars, eds. Creators of Culture: Occupations and Professions in Culture Industries. Greenwich: JAI Press, 1993.
Centeno, Augusto, ed. The Intent of the Artist. New York: Russell & Russell, 1970.
Chadwick, Whitney. Women, Art, and Society. London: Thames & Hudson, 1997.
Changing Images of Men and Women Dancing: ABT and NFL. Eye on Dance 68. Videotape. Dir. Richard Sheridan. Arc Videodance, 1982. 28 min.
Chartrand, Harry Hillman. “Architecture and Design Arts Occupations, 1940-1990.” Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts, 1994.
Cheatwood, D. “The Private Muse in the Public World.” Public Policy and the Arts. K.V. Mulcaby and C.R Swaim, eds. Westview Press: Boulder, 1982.
Chmelar, Robin D. “Health Insurance and Workers’ Compensation Issues for Performing Artists, Part I.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 5 (1990): 67-71.
Chmelar, Robin D. “Health Insurance and Workers’ Compensation Issues for Performing Artists, Part II.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 5 (1990): 101-105.
Cholst, Sheldon. The Psychology of the Artist. New York: Beau Rivage Press, 1977.
Chong, J., C. Zaza, and F. Smith. “Design and Implementation of a Performing Artists’ Health Program in Canada.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 6 (1991).
Clark, Kenneth. The Artist Grows Old Series. London: Cambridge University Press, 1972.
Clark, M.A. “Counseling Artists in the Acquisition and Use of New York City Cooperative Housing.” Columbia-VLA Journal of Law and the Arts 14 (1990): 165-
Cleveland, William. Art in Other Places: Artists at Work in America’s Community and Social Institutions. Westport: Preager, 1992.
Collins, G. C. “Women and Art: The Problem of Status.” Studies in Art Education. 21.1 (1979): 57-64.
Considine, Maryellen Peters. “Internal Dynamics and Environmental Influences in the Work of an Artist.” Diss. Teachers College, Columbia University, 1990.
Contemporary Artists at Work. Dir. Nahum Zilberberg. Videocassette. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Films, 1975.
Crozier, W. Ray. “The Personality of the Artist: Current Psychological Perspectives.” The Structurist 25/26 (1985-1986): 36-40.
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Jacob W. Getzels. The Creative Vision: A Longitudinal Study of Problem Finding in Art. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, 1976.
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihalyi, Jacob Getzels, and Stephen P. Kahn. “Talent and Achievement.” Chicago, 1984. Unpublished report.
Cwi, David, ed. “Research on the American Artist and Craftsman.” Research in the Arts. Baltimore: The Walters Art Gallery, 1978: 72-97.
Dancers’ Bodies: Physical and Emotional Change. Eye on Dance 120. Videotape. Dir. Jeffrey C. Bush. Arc Videodance, 1984.
Dancers’ Health Alert: Maturing Patterns. Eye on Dance 154. Videotape. Jeffrey C. Bush, Susan Buirge, and Margalit Oved. Arc Videodance, 1985.
Dancers’ Survival Tactics: Growth and Varying Patterns. Eye on Dance 138. Videotape. Jeffrey C. Bush. 1984.
Daniel, Ryan. “Artists and policy: a case study of the creative industries in north-eastern Australia”, International Journal of Cultural Policy 20.5, October 2014.
Daniel, Ryan. “Creative Artists, Career Patterns and Career Theory: Insights from the Australian Context.” Australian Journal of Career Development 25.3: 91-8, 2016.
Data Use and Access Laboratories. Minorities and Women in the Arts, 1970: A Study. Research Division Report 7. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts, 1978.
Davis, D. J. and E. P. Torrance. “How Favorable Are the Values of Art Educators to the Creative Person?” Studies in Art Education 6.2 (1965): 42-53.
DiMaggio, Paul. Cultural Boundaries and Structural Change: The Extension of the High-Culture Model to Theatre, Opera and the Dance. New Haven, Connecticut: Program on Non-Profit Organizations, Institution for Social and Policy Studies, Yale University, 1991.
DiSpirito, Anna Maria. “An Exploration of the Relationship Between the Artist and the Nude Model.” Diss. Western Washington University, 1991.
Doig, Adrienne and Tess Horowitz, eds. Endangered Spaces: Artist Run Initiatives in New South Wales. Sydney: Artspace Sydney, 1989.
Earl, William L. A Dancer Takes Flight: Psychological Concerns in the Development of the American Male Dancer. Maryland: University Press of America, 1988.
Egan, Sue. Framing the Visual Arts in Newham: The Report of a Feasibility Study into the Establishment of Studio & Exhibition Space in the London Borough of Newham. Newham: Newham Arts Council, March 1989.
Ehrlich, Cyril. “Profession or Job? Musicians in Late Nineteenth Century Britain.” Economic Policy for the Arts W.S. Hendon, et. al., eds. Cambridge: ABT, 1980.
Ennis, P. and J. Bonin. Understanding the Employment of Actors. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts, 1977.
Farnell, Brenda, ed. Human Action Signs in Cultural Context: The Visible and the Invisible in Movement and Dance. New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1995.
Feldman, David. Nature’s Gambit. New York: Basic Books, 1986.
Feldman, Edmund Burke. The Artist. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall,1982.
Feldman, Edmund Burke. The Artist: A Social History. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1995.
Felton, M.V. “The Economics of the Creative Arts: The Case of the Composer.” Journal of Cultural Economics 2 (1978): 41-61.
Felton, M.V. “Policy Implications of a Composer Labor Supply.” Economic Policy for the Arts. W.S. Hendon, et. al., eds. Cambridge: ABT, 1980.
Ferguson, Julenda L. Black Choreographers Moving. Berkeley: Expansion Arts Services, 1991.
Filer, Randall K. “Arts and Academe: The Effect of Education on Earnings of Artists.” Journal of Cultural Economics 14 (1990): 15-40.
Filer, Randall K. “The Economic Condition of Artists in America.” Cultural Economics 88: An American Perspective. D. Shaw, et al., eds. Akron: Association of Cultural Economists, 1989.
Filer, Randall K. “The Effects of Nonpecuniary Compensation on Estimates of Labor Supply Functions.” Quarterly Review of Economics and Business 16 (1986): 17-30.
Filer, Randall K. “The Price of Failure: Earnings of Former Artists.” Artists and Cultural Consumers. D. V. Shaw, W.S. Hendon and C.R. Waits, eds. Akron: Association for Cultural Economics, 1987.
Filer, Randall K. “The ‘Starving Artist’ – Myth or Reality? Earnings of Artists in the United States.” Journal of Political Economy 94 (1986): 56-75.
Fisher, Mark and Ursula Owen, eds. Whose Cities? London: Penguin, 1991.
Fisher, Seymour. Pretend the World is Funny and Forever: A Psychological Analysis of Comedians, Clowns, and Actors. Hillsdale, New Jersey: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1981.
Flender, Nicole. “Dancing Across Time.” Dance Teacher 21.10 (1999): 70, 72-73.
Fliegel, Norris and Bernard Rosenberg. The Vanguard Artist. Perennial Works in Sociology. New York: Arno Press, 1979.
Fohrbeck, K. and A. J. Wies. The Social Status of the Artist in the Federal Republic of Germany. Bonn: Inter Nationes, 1980.
Forbes, Jonathan. “Artists and the Workplace: The Pilot Phase.” A Report From the Ontario Arts Council. Ontario: 1990.
Fraleigh, Sondra Horton and Penelope Hanstein, eds. Researching Dance: Evolving Modes of Inquiry. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999.
Franklin, Margery B. “Forging Links in Narratives of Creative Work: Causes, Precursors, and Sources.” The Journal of Aesthetic Education 33.1 (1999).
Franklin, Margery B., and Bernard Kaplan. Development and the Arts: Critical Perspectives. Northvale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994.
Freeman, Mark Philip. Finding the Muse: A Sociopsychological Inquiry into the Conditions of Artistic Creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Friedler, Sharon E. and Susan B. Glazer, eds. Dancing Female: Lives and Issues of Women in Contemporary Dance. Choreography and Dance Studies, 12. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic, 1997.
Galenson, David W. Old Masters and Young Geniuses: The two lifecycles of artistic creativity. Princeton University Press: New Jersey, 2006.
Galligan, Ann M., and Neil O. Alper. “Characteristics of Performing Artists: A Baseline Profile of Sectoral Crossovers.” The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 28.2: (1998): 155-77.
Galligan, Ann M., and Neil O. Alper. “The Career Matrix: The Pipeline for Artists in the United States,” Chapter 7 in The Public Life of the Arts in America, J. Cherbo and M. Wyszomirski (ed), Rutgers University Press, 2000.
Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books, 1985.
Gardner, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
Garfunkel, Gloria. “The Improvised Self: Sex Differences in Artistic Identity.” Diss. Harvard University, 1984.
Garoian, Charles R. Performing Pedagogy: Toward an Art of Politics. Interruptions-Border Testimony(ies) and Critical Discourse/s. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1999.
Gedo, John E. Portraits of the Artist: Psychoanalysis of Creativity and its Vicissitudes. New York: Guilford Press, 1983.
Gedo, John E. The Artist and the Emotional World: Creativity and Personality. Psychoanalysis and Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.
Gerhart, G. L. “Effects of Evaluative Statements on Artistic Performance and Motivation.” Studies in Art Education. 27.2 (1986): 61-72.
Goldman, Connie, et. al. Conversations with Creative People Over 70. Washington, DC: National Public Radio, 1980.
Goldman, Irwin J. “The Willingness of Music and Visual Arts Students to Admit to Socially Undesirable and Psychopathological Characteristics.” Diss. Columbia University, 1962.
Goode, D. J. and S. P. Knight. “Identification, Retrieval and Analysis of Arts Medicine Literature.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 6 (1991).
Grant, Daniel. “How the Criticized Deal with Criticism.” American Artist June 1995: 66-8.
Gray, C.M. “The Economics of Arts Labor Markets: An Overview.” Artists and Cultural Consumers. D. V. Shaw, W.S. Hendon and C.R. Waits, eds. Akron: Association for Cultural Economics, 1987.
Gray, C.M. “Nonpecuniary Rewards in the Performing Arts Labor Market: A Case Study of Dancers and Choreographers.” The Economics of Cultural lndustries. W.S. Hendon, et al., eds. Akron: Association for Cultural Economics, 1984.
Greben, S.E. “The Dancer Transition Centre of Canada: Addressing the Stress of Giving Up Professional Dancing.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 4 (1989): 128-.
Greben, Stanley E. “Dealing With the Stresses of Aging in Dancers.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 7.4 (1992): 27-131.
Greenberg, Bette and Albert Rothenberg. The Index of Scientific Writings on Creativity: Creative Men and Women. Kent: Dawson, 1974.
Griff, M. “Fine Arts: Recruitment and Socialization of Artists.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 1968.
Griff. M. “The Recruitment and Socialization of Artists.” The Sociology of Art and Literature: A Reader. M.C. Albrecht, J.H. Barret, and M. Griff, eds. New York: Praeger, 1970.
Gritzer, Glenn. “The Role of Gender, Class and Race in the Student Careers of Artists.” Art & Academe (1992).
Hale, Rosemary D. “An Economic Analysis of the Architectural Profession.” Journal of Cultural Economics 4 (1980): 29-38.
Hall, Richard H. Dimensions of Work. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications, 1986.
Hamilton, Linda H. “The Emotional Costs of Performing: Interventions for the Young Artist” from “Medical Problems of Performing Artists.” Philadelphia. 12.3 (1997): 67-71.
Hamilton, Linda H. The Person Behind the Mask: A Guide to Performing Arts Psychology. Publications in Creativity Research. Greenwich, Connecticut: Ablex Pub. 1997.
Hanna, Judith Lynne. Dance, Sex, and Gender: Signs of Identity, Dominance, Defiance, and Desire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
Harman, S. E. “Bibliography of Occupational Disorders in Instrumental Musicians.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 3 (1988).
Harris, Neil. The Artist in American Society. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970.
Harris, Neil. The Artist in American Society: The Formative Years. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966.
Harrison, Brian R. and John R. Thera. “Economic Status of Canadian Freelance Writers.” Economics of Cultural Decisions. William S. Hendon and James L. Shanahan, eds. Cambridge: ABT Books, 1983.
Harrison, J. “Arts-Related Hazards: Artists Should Be Put in the Picture.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 140 (1989).
Hatterer, Lawrence J. The Artist in Society: Problems and Treatment of the Creative Personality. New York: Grove Press, 1966.
Havelka, Jaroslav. The Nature of the Creative Process in Art: A Psychological Study. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1968.
Heckathorn, Douglas D., and Joan Jeffri. “Finding the Beat: Using Respondent-Driven Sampling to Study Jazz Musicians.” Poetics 28.4 (2001): 307-29.
Heckathorn, Douglas D.. “Jazz Networks: Using Respondent-driven Sampling to Study the Network Structure of Two Jazz Musician Communities.” Unpublished paper delivered at the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Atlanta, August 2003.
Heckathorn, Douglas D., Joan Jeffri, and Michael Spiller. “Painting Your Life: A Study of Aging Visual Artists in New York City,”, POETICS (39/1 – 2011).
Hennekam, Sophie and Dawn Bennett. “Dealing with Multiple Incompatible Work-Related Identities: The Case of Artists.” Personnel Review 46.5 (2017): 970-87.
Hennekam, Sophie and Dawn Bennett. “Involuntary career transition and identity within the artist population”, Personnel Review 45.6 (September 2016): 1114-1131.
Hercombe, Sue. What the Hell Do We Need an Artist Here For? London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 1986.
Hermelin, Beate and Linda Pring. “The Pictorial Context Dependency of Savant Artists: A Research Note.” Perceptual and Motor Skills 87.3 (1998) 995-1001.
Hewitt, Alan. “Like It Is, Man: Professional Theater Employment 1961-1968.” Performing Arts Review 1 (1970): 623-667.
Hofstadter, Dan. Temperaments: Artists Facing Their Work. 1st ed. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1992.
Horosko, Marian. “Drugs and Dancers: How Dancers Can Get Hooked. In Three Parts.” Dance Magazine New York. pt. 1, Feb 1981, 84-89; pt. 2, Mar. 1981, 90-95; pt. 3, Apr 1981, 96-103.
Horosko, Marian. “Help is on the Way.” Dance Magazine Sept. 1982: 90.
Horowitz, H. “The Status of Artists in the USA.” Journal of Cultural Economics 17 (1993).
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Sulter, Maud, ed. Passion: Discourses on Black Women’s Creativity. West Yorkshire: Urban Fox Press, 1990.
Summerton, Janet. “Patterns of Success in the Contemporary Visual Arts.” Cultural Economics 88: A European Perspective. C.R Waits, W.S. Hendon and J.M.D. Schuster, eds. Akron: Association for Cultural Economics, 1987.
Sutherland, David Earl. “Is There Life After Dance? Social and Gerontological Reflections on Dancing Careers.” After the Dance: Conference on Career Transition for Dancers: Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York. (1982): 37-49.
Swaim, Richard. The Modern Muse: The Support and Condition of Artists. New York: American Council for the Arts, 1989.
Swartz, Mark. “Shrinking Barbara: Psychotherapy and the Contemporary Artist.” New Art Examiner 27.1 (1999): 42-4.
Taylor, Brian. “Artists in the Marketplace: A Framework for Analysis.” Artists and Cultural Consumers. D. V. Shaw, W.S. Hendon and C.R Waits, eds. Akron: Association for Cultural Economics, 1987.
Taylor, Ceci and Jim Taylor. Psychology of Dance. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1995.
Thiel, Yvonne Greer. Artists and People. New York: Philosophical Library, 1959.
Thomas, Helen, ed. Dance, Gender, and Culture. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
Throsby, C.D. and G.A. Withers. The Economics of the Performing Arts. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1979 and Aldershot: Gregg Revivals, 1993.
Throsby, David. “The Artist in Australia Today.” Report of Individual Artists’ Inquiry, Australia Council. Sydney, 1983.
Throsby, David. Occupational and Employment Characteristics of Artists. Sydney: Australia Council, 1986.
Throsby, David and Devon Mills, “When Are You Going to Get a Real Job? An Economic Study of Australian Artists.” Sydney: Australia Council, 1989.
Throsby, David. “Artists as workers.” Cultural Economics: the Arts, the Heritage and the Media Industries Vol. II. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1997: 261-268.
Throsby, David. “Copyright issues for visual artists.” Copyright Reporter: Journal of the Copyright Society of Australia 11:2 (November 1993): 17-19.
Throsby, David. “Living off your art.” Artlink 14:2 (Winter 1994): 10-11.
Throsby, David. “The production and consumption of the arts: a view of cultural economics.” Journal of Economic Literature 32:1 (March 1994): 1-29.
Throsby, David and Ruth Towse. “Labour markets in the arts: some unresolved issues.” Paper given at American Economic Association Meetings, Boston, January 3, 1994.
Throsby, David. “A work preference model of artist behaviour.” Cultural Economics and Cultural Policies. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1994: 69-80.
Throsby, David and Joan Jeffri. “Professionalism and the visual artist.” European Journal of Cultural Policy 1:1 (1994): 99-108.
Throsby, David and Beverley Thompson. But What Do You Do For a Living? A New Economic Study of Australian Artists. Sydney: Australia Council, 1994.
Throsby, David and Beverley Thompson. The Artist at Work: Some Further Results from the 1988 Survey of Individual Artists. Sydney: Australia Council, 1994.
Throsby, David. “Disaggregated earnings functions for artists.” Essays in the Economics of the Arts. Amsterdam: North Holland (1996): 331-346.
Throsby, David. “Economic circumstances of the performing artist: Baumol and Bowen thirty years on.” Journal of Cultural Economics 20:3 (1996): 225-240.
Throsby, David. “De la supervivència econòmica d’actors i músics.” Revista Econòmica de Catalunya. 31 (May 1997): 71-75.
Throsby, David and Claire Bardez. Similarity and Difference: Craftspeople and Visual Artists in Australia. Sydney: Australia Council, 1997.
Throsby, David. “Economic and cultural value in the work of creative artists.” Values and Heritage Conservation. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute (2000): 26-31.
Throsby, David. The Arts in Australia Today. Sydney: Australia Council, 1984.
Throsby, David. “Artists as Workers.” Cultural Economics. Towse, Ruth and Abdul Khakee, eds. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1992.
Throsby, David and B. Thompson. But What Do You Do for a Living? Australia: Australia Council, 1994.
Throsby, David and D. Mills. Occupational and Employment Characteristics of Artists. Sydney: Australia Council, 1986.
Throsby, David and D. Mills. When Are You Going to Get a Real Job? Sydney: Australia Council, 1989.
Throsby, David and Ruth Towse. “On Labor Markets in the Arts: Some Unresolved Issues.” American Economic Association Annual Meeting, 1994.
Tomko, Linda J. Dancing Class: Gender, Ethnicity, and Social Divides in American Dance, 1890-1920. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1999.
Towse, Ruth. “The Earnings of Singers: An Economic Analysis.” Cultural Economics. Ruth Towse and Abdul Khakee, eds. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1992.
Towse, Ruth. “The Labor Market for Artists.” University of Exeter, Department of Economics, January l992.
Towse, Ruth. “The Social and Economic Characteristics of Artists in Devon.” A Report commissioned by South West Arts and the Arts Council of Great Britain. Prepared in conjunction with Social Community Planning Research, 1991.
Towse, Ruth and Abdul Khakee, eds. Cultural Economics. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1992.
Tracy, Sheila. Bands, Booze and Broads. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, 1996.
Turner, Victor Witter. The Anthropology of Performance. New York: PAJ Publications, 1988.
UNESCO. “Recommendations Concerning the Status of the Artist.” Adopted by the General Conference at its Twenty-First Session, Belgrade, 27 October 1980.
Vigier, Rachel. Gestures of Genius: Women, Dance, and the Body. Ontario: Mercury Press, 1994.
Waits, C.R. and E. M. McNertney. “An Economic Model of Artistic Behavior.” Journal of Cultural Economics 8 (1984): 49-60.
Waits, C.R. and E.M. McNertney. “Income Incentives and the Selection of Artistic Careers.” Markets for the Arts. Shanahan, J.L. et. al., eds. Akron: Association for Cultural Economics, 1983.
Waits, C.R. and E. M. McNertney. “The Incomes of Cultural Providers: A Review of Current Research.” Artists and Cultural Consumers. D. V. Shaw, W.S. Hendon and C.R. Waits, eds. Akron: Association for Cultural Economics, 1987.
Waits, C.R. and E. M. McNertney. “Uncertainty and Investment in Human Capital in the Arts.” Economic Policy for the Arts. W.S. Hendon, et. al., eds. Cambridge: ABT, 1980.
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Walters, J. Donald. Crystal Clarity: The Artist as a Channel. California: Crystal Clarity, 1987.
Washabaugh, William, ed. The Passion of Music and Dance: Body, Gender and Sexuality. New York: Berg, 1998.
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Wassal, Gregory H. Artwork: The Work and Pay of Artists in New England. Cambridge: New England Foundation for the Arts, 1983.
Wassal, Gregory H. Artists in Massachusetts. Boston: Massachusetts Council for the Arts and Humanities, 1981.
Wassal, Gregory H. “Artists Labor Market Experiences.” Economics of Artists and Arts Policy. Arts Council of Finland Research Report No. 22, 1998.
Wassal, Gregory H. “The Write Stuff: Employment and Earnings of Authors, 1970 to 1990.” Artists in the Work Force. Santa Ana, California: National Endowment for the Arts/Seven Locks Press, 1996.
Wassal, Gregory H. “Earnings of American Artists: 1960-1980.” -Proceedings of the 1992 Association for Cultural Economics International Conference, 1993.
Wassal, Gregory H. “Toward a Unified Theory of the Determinants of Artists’ Earnings.” Cultural Economics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1992.
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Withers, G. “Artists’ Subsidy of the Arts: A Reply.” Australian Economic Papers 28 (1989): 289-90.
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Publications, Research Division, National Endowment for the Arts.
A. Research Division Reports
The following Research Division Reports are available from the Research Division, National Endowment for the Arts, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20506. Single copies are available free while quantities last.
B. Research Division Notes
The following Research Division Notes are available from the Research Division, National Endowment for the Arts, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20506. Single copies are available free.
#2 Artist Employment in 1982 (January 24, 1983).
#3 Artists Increase 81 Percent in the 1970s (April 27, 1983).
#4 Women and Minorities in Artist Occupations (July 4, 1983).
#5 Artists in the Large Metropolitan Areas (September 5, 1983).
#7 Artist Employment in 1983 (March 15, 1984).
#9 Changing Proportions of Men and Women in the Artist Occupations 1970-1980 (March 4, 1985).
#10 Artists Real Earnings Decline 37 Percent in the 1970s (March 5, 1985).
#11 Artist Employment in 1984 (March 5, 1985).
#15 Artist Employment in 1985 (March 10, 1986).
#22 Artist Employment in 1986 (March 20, 1987).
#29 Artist Employment in 1987 (February 17, 1988).
#31 Artist Employment in 1988 (April 17, 1989).
#33 Artist Employment in 1989 (September 24, 1990).
#35 Artist Employment in 1990 (October 21, 1991).
#37 Artist Employment in 1991 (November 30, 1992).
#39 Artist Employment in 1992 (July 30, 1993).
#40 Artists Increase 54% in the 1980s (August 12, 1993).
#41 Regional and State Trends for Artists: 1970 – 1990 (August 12, 1993).
#42 Artists in Metropolitan Areas – 1990 (August 12, 1993).
#54 Artist Employment in 1993 (February 28, 1994).
#57 Artist Employment in 1994 (July, 1995).
#58 Artist Employment in 1995 (October 1996).
#60 Artist Employment in America (August 1997).
#61 Artist Employment in America – 1997 (March, 1998).
#73 Artist Employment in 1998 (April, 1999).
C. Other publications not listed as Research Reports or Research Notes
Available through ERIC. Some of these publication are not available through ERIC and are noted below.
#1 Employment and Unemployment of Artists:1970-1975. (32pp) ED 125416
#10 Selected Characteristics of Artists: 1970. (32pp) ERIC # ED 165216
#12 Artists Compared by Age, Sex, and Earnings in 1970 and 1976. (56pp) ERIC # ED 281821
#13 Craft Artist Membership Organizations 1978. (52pp) ERIC # ED 286789
#16 Artist Employment and Unemployment: 1971-1980. (44pp) ERIC # ED 282810
#18 Visual Artists in Houston, Minneapolis, Washington, and San Francisco: Earnings and Exhibition Opportunities. (48pp) ERIC # ED 287754
#19 Where Artists Live 1980. (48pp) ERIC # ED 288757
#28 Dancemakers. (94pp) ERIC # ED 379243
#29 Trends in Artist Occupations: 1970-1990. (111pp) ERIC # ED 408202
#3 Understanding the Employment of Actors. (36pp) ERIC # ED 298068
#37 Artists in the Work Force: Employment and Earnings, 1970-1990. (152pp) ERIC # ED 408487
#5 Where Artists Live: 1970. (80pp) ERIC # ED 298069
#7 Minorities and Women in the Arts: 1979. (32pp) ERIC # ED 289753
“American Dance 1992: Who’s Watching? Who’s Dancing?” Jack R. Lemmon. ERIC # ED 398165
“Artists By Place of Residence: 1980.” (417p) Diane C. Ellis. ERIC # ED 289767
“Artists in the Workforce, 1950 to 1985.” (275p). Constance F. Citro. ERIC # ED 298027
“Artists in the Workforce.” C. Citro and D. Gaquin. ERIC # ED 298 027
“Artists Who Work With Their Hands: Painters, Sculptors, Craft Artists and Artist Printmakers, A Trend Report, 1970 – 1990.” Joan Jeffri and Robert Greenblatt. ERIC # ED 390728
Counting Artists (December 1996) Findings from Research Report #37 – Artists in the Work Force: Employment and Earnings, 1970-1990. Tom Bradshaw. http://arts.endow.gov/pub/Researcharts/Research.html
“Craft Artists in the United States.” C. Citro. ERlC # ED 287 765
“Craft-Artists in the United States: A Portrait.” Constance F. Citro. ERIC # ED 287765
“Crafts-Artists in the United States.” (229p) Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. ERIC # ED 226111
“Earnings of Artists.” Diane Ellis. ERIC # ED 289 761
“Earnings of Artists: 1980.” (45p) Diane C. Ellis. ERIC # ED 289761
“Employment and Earnings of Performing Artists: 1970 to 1990.” Ruttenberg, Kilgallon & Associates, Inc. Compiled by Ann O. Kay and Stephyn G.W. Butcher. ERIC # ED 390727
“Employment Status of Performing Artists, 1970-1980.” (134p) Muriel G. Cantor. ERIC # ED 298024
“Employment Status of Performing Artists, 1970-1980.” Muriel Cantor. ERIC # ED 298 024
Executive Summary Report #37: Artists in the Workforce: Employment and Earnings, 1970-1990. http://arts.endow.gov/pub/Researcharts/Summary37.html
“Labor Market Earnings of American Artists in 1980. A report to the National Endowment for the Arts.” R. Filer. ERIC # ED 309 109
“Methodology Report: Survey of Crafts-Artists.” (260p) Mathematical Policy Research, Inc. ERIC # ED 226110
“Minorities and Women in the Arts: 1980.” (64p) Diane C. Ellis. ERIC # ED 289765
“The Distribution of Artists Among Industrial Sectors.” (41p). Diane C. Ellis. ERIC # ED 289768
“The Distribution of Artists Among Industrial Sectors.” Diane Ellis. ERIC # ED 289 768
“The Economic Conditions and Exhibition Processes of Artists in Four Cities, 1981” (560p) Human Resources Research Organization. ERIC # ED 216990
“Trends in Artistic Occupations: 1970-1980.” Diane Ellis. No ERIC # could be found.
“Visual Artists in America: A Report on the 1970 and 1980 Census Data on Visual Arts.” R. Orend. No ERIC number has been assigned.
Visual Artists in Houston, Minneapolis, Washington, and San Francisco: Earnings and Exhibition Opportunities. National Endowment for the Arts. Research Division 18. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts, 1984.
“Women and Minorities in the Arts: A Portrait from the 1980 Census.” C. Citro and D. Gaquin. ERIC # ED 298 028
“Women and Minorities in the Arts: A Portrait From the 1980 Census.” (155p). Constance F. Citro. ERIC # ED 298028
1989 Sourcebook of Arts Statistics, 1992 Addendum. Washington, DC: Westat, 1992.
Census Related Sources
Beresford, Jack. Notes on Trends in Artist Occupations 1970-1990. January 28, 1993. National Endowment for the Arts.
Public Use Microdata Samples: United States 1990 Census of Population and Housing. US. Dept. of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of Census.